検索対象: GLOBAL DREAMS. IMPERIAL CORPORATIONS AND THE NEW WORLD ORDER
108 / GLOBAL DREAMS messages Of 引 1 sorts, are unwilling or unable tO dedicate tO them. Henry David Thoreau was not thinking only of Goethe and Mon- tesquieu when he wrote, 、 、 B00ks must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written," but presumably also of the dime 27 novels 0f his day. The two generations that have grown up with television have exhibited less patience for bOOkS demanding concen- tration than their parents had, and the MTV generation even less. Casual readers in the United States no longer peruse newspapers in the numbers or with the care that was typical even twenty years 28 ago. lt is not surpnstng, therefore, that the publishing divisions 0f glObal entertalnment conglomerates devote ever smaller proportions Of their lists tO poetry, essays, analytical history, or SOCial critiques ()s opposed t0 flashy manifestos). "One 0f a kind" b00ks, as some publishers call nonformula books, are hard to sell. A few "difficult" books such as Paul Kennedy's T わ ビ Rise 4 れ d ん 〃 0 ー the G 尾 酣 Po ル 5 become fashionable, usually for extrinsic and entirely unpredictable reasons. The "bottom line ” —the accounting mantra old-line editors hate— echoes through the corridors in foreign-owned publishing houses in the United States Just as in publishing houses that are still U. S. - owned. According to the publisher Andre Schiffrin, "For decades, the industry averaged a 4 percent after-tax profit. NOW the conglomer- ” 29 ates expect anywhere from 10 percent tO 16 percent. HOW driven a media conglomerate may be tO reap quick profits has a great deal tO dO with the parent corporation's debt load or the promlses made to sell the board on the acquisition and little to do with the color of the flag flying at world headquarters. Non-U. S. global media con- glomerates mortgaged themselves heavily—in Maxwell's case to the point 0f extinction—in order t0 acquire global-scale publishing prop- ertles. Media conglomerates, wherever they are based, pay attention tO profits and market shares, and they are quite prepared to publish bOOkS critical Of their countries Of origin, provided there are good business reasons for dOing SO. Death warrants even for bOOkS already at the press are occasionally signed in the executive Offices Of corpo- rate publishers because publication threatens to bring bad publicity, 30 lawsults, or the wrath Of a powerful corporatlon or personage. ・ executive censorship happens, lt is an assault on editorial in- dependence and free expression. But a foreign conglomerate in Amer- ica is, if anything, more likely tO be nervous about the negative effects
OF THE MAKING OF BOOKS / 107 the growing threat 0f the breakup 0f Canada' the issue 0f Canadian identity has taken on greater urgency. N0ting that 77 percent 0f all newsstand periodicals and three out 0f four b00ks sold in Canada orrginate in foreign countries, Campbell calls for protection Of Canadian-owned media. According t0 a survey by PW ル 川 酣 わ れ 4 / , "NO foreigner has been able t0 buy a Canadian house for some years. " France and Japan discourage foreign control 0f publishing houses and most developing countries permit only nunorrty part- nerships by foreigners. " A number 0f 0ther governments flatly refuse to allow foreigners t0 invest in publishing properties. The United states IS intent on including cultural products in future trade agree- ments with canada and Mexico, but reslStance tO relaxing tions on American bOOkS, magazines, films, and programs remains strong in bOth C()untrleS. VI. The arrival Of the electronic bOOk has made it easier for bOOks tO cross borders. Though the hardware is still expensive, it is now POS- sible tO read a best-seller on a computer and tO adjust the print size or command illustrations t0 appear by punching a key. But despite the elaborate electronIC networks for the diffusion Of information that increasingly define our age, b00ks ()n the old-fashioned sense of the word) and journals (usually bound for permanent library use) remain the prrncipal commumcatlons media for the Of ideas. The great majority 0f people t0day pick up information from television and radio; they are entertained by video and 6 ー m. But these mcreasingly globalized channels 0f communication d0 not lend them- selves well tO the exploration Of ideas. ・ What comes across the air waves, even ln most public-affairs iS the simplifica- tion Of thought. Often it is the vulgarization or distortion Of ideas that first came tO light in a bOOk or an article. The electronic media are not substitutes for the printed word. They feed on it' usually transmitting snippets Of thought as an obbligato tO pictures or as teasers for ads. BOOkS and literary or scholarly articles remain the only vehicles that permit the sort Of prolonged intellectual encounter 研 one mind with another by which knowledge is transformed int0 understanding. TO be sure, bOOkS require active collaboration Of the reader, a degree 0f concentration most peopl% bombarded and distracted bY
94 / GLOBAL DREAMS and most writers earn no more than $ 5 000 a year from bOOkS. But the globalization and commercialization 0f publishing are changing the way bOOkS are conceived, the way they are written and edited, and the cultural impact they are having around the wor 旧 . PubIishing has become a global industry. Owning publishing prop- ertles several countrres IS different from Other cial operations ln a variety Of places, except that it encourages dreams of turning books into global products. Despite the difficulties, the need for translation being only one 0f them, a few b00ks such as Alex HaIey's R00 な , Umberto Eco's T わ ど Na 川 ビ 0 ー the RO , and books by John Le Carré and Gabriel Garcfa Mårquez have sold in large quan- tities all over the world. The same could have been said for A れ 〃 4 Kar ビ れ 4 over a century ago, but the difference now is that glObal distribution is greatly speeded by copublishing arrangements and near-simultaneous launchings ln a number Of countries. Danielle steel iS a prolific and successful Bertelsmann author, along with tWO or three other authors the closest thing t0 a global best-selling b00k machine there is. But Dell, the Bertelsmann subsidiary in the United states that is her prlmary publisher, does not have the power tO require this producer 0f yearly blockbusters t0 publish with Bertelsmann-owned presses ln Other countrres nor tO turn over the foreign rights. She herself is a global industry, and there are many agents and publishers waitlng in line for a share. Nevertheless, the number Of manuscripts that turn intO glObal b00ks is exceedingly small. Film and m1-1SIC can be easily marketed as glObal products because their chief attractions are actl()n, sound, and beat. A pakistani audience can watch an action-packed ArnOld Schwarzenegger film with Urdu subtitles and come away with just about everything the film has t0 0 幵 er. The essence 0f a b00k, on the Other hand, is language. A translation is a reflection Of a literary work as perceived by a translator whO is usually not the author. lnevitably, a book displaying literary artistry or complex thought will be read by foreign readers as if reflected in a glass darkly. Even a brilliant translation iS a different bOOk. ThiS reality sets limits tO global marketing. B00ks d0 not travel well in their originallanguage, unless it happens t0 be English, and then only a tiny fraction 0f the 6 world's Coke-guzzlers or Madonna fans is likely to pick it up.
OF THE MAKING 0F BOOKS / 95 But a very few bOOkS are now conceived from the start as Ob 引 products. Mostly they are slices 0f American life written for a huge mass audience around the world modeled on earlier blockbusters and marketed like any Hollywood fairy い le. lndeed, such books are either inspired by a film or designed t0 whet appetites for the maJ0r motion picture that is soon t0 be. 立 な : T わ ビ S ビ 9 ″ el M g Mitchell's Go 〃 例 舫 舫 ビ Wind, published by TimeWarner's Warner B00ks, was released simultaneously in forty countries in the fall 0f 1991 , but this unprecedented globallaunching, which resulted in phenomenal sales was possible only because 100 million readers had already read the original and hundreds of millions more had seen the movie. ShortlY after the end of the GuIf 嶬 r in 1991 , General H. Norman Schwarz- kopf, who had become a world celebrity thanks to his nightly 叩 pear- ances on global television during the conflict, sold the rights t0 his memoirs tO Bantam for somewhere between $ 5 million and $ 7 million and publishers virtually everywhere competed for the foreign- language rights. Madonna's Sex was launched simultaneously in five languages, but what sold the b00k needed no translation. Even bOOkS from Britain encounter problems in the American market, despite the common language. Occasionally, the story lines Of British novels are altered tO accommodate American readers. ln Jeffrey Archer's novel ん r 立 A 川 0 れ g Eq 4 な , a tale of British politics, the bOOk was "recast" for the American audience. AS Joni Evans, the editor 0f the American edition, explained, 、 'The person wh0 ended up being elected prime mmister was not the same man WhO won ln ” 7 the British version. lt was all with Jeffrey's approval. Readers buy books for all sorts 研 reasons—to give a gift, t0 satisfy curiosity, tO galn wisdom, tO experience the JOY Of learning or the sound Of poetry, tO escape intO Other people's lives through stories, plays, and novels, t0 devour gossrp, t0 find the meaning 0f life, t0 spice an evening with the thrills Of the chase or the bedroom, or tO acqtllre useful information about hOW tO bake a truly delicious carrot cake or to make a million dollars in hog-belly futures. A general- interest bOOk is many things—an Object tO grace a COffee table, an illustrated manual on hOW tO unclog the sink, a novel tO last an airplane ride or tO reread over a lifetime. According tO tradition, when sheets of paper were bound in buckram the publisher was offering an implied warranty that the contents were worth keeping. BOOkS were permanent acqmsitlons that became parts Of one's life, unlike periodicals, which were for tossing after a quick read. But the distinction has become blurry.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abegglen, James C. , and George Stalk' Jr. K 訪 4 : The 々 4 れ ぉ e CO ゆ 0 〃 0 れ . New York: Basic Books, 1985. Ackerman, Diane. A Natural H な 0 ″ 厖 立 ぉ . New York: Random House, 1990. Adams, James Ring, and Douglas Frantz. A 様 〃 立 れ 元 e Ba れ を HO ル BCCI & 0 B 〃 〃 0 Around 舫 ビ W 旧 . New York: Pocket Books, 1992. AIdana, Cornelia H. A CO な は 厄 U れ d げ 怩 あ 々 川 な S ″ 阮 0 厩 け g 厄 Mu 厖 - れ 4 行 0 〃 4 な 舫 p わ 〃 ゆ 々 ⅲ 立 川 0 〃 d “ r 4 〃 d G 川 e 厩 ん d 郷 5. IBON Databank, Philippines, 1989. AIiber, Robert Z. T わ ど 川 酣 わ れ 4 / MO れ G の . New York: Basic B00ks, 1987. Barlett, Donald L. , and James B. Steele. A 川 た 4 : Ⅳ わ 酊 W 夜 な Wrong.? Kansas City: Andrews & McMeeI, 1992. Barnet, Richard J. , and Ronald E. Müller. G あ わ R 訪 : The PO ル 催 0 ー the Mu - れ わ れ 4 / CO ゆ ora 行 0 郷 . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974. Barry, Tom, ed. Mexico: A C04 0 G . Albuquerque, N. Mex. : lnter- Hemispheric Education Resource Center, 1992. Bello, WaIden, and Stephanie Rosenfeld. D な go D な お s : ハ 5 ' 5 M 耘 “ Econ- 0 川 肥 5 ⅲ C / な な . San Francisco: F00d First, 1990. Benjamin, curtis. し S. B00 た 5 A 房 04d : Neglected ハ 川 房 s 覊 d0 . Washington' D. C. : Library of Congress, 1984. Bergsten, C. Fred, Thomas Horst, and Theodore H. Moran. A 川 催 4 れ Mu 〃 4 〃 0 ル 4 な 4 れ d A 川 4 れ 5 た Washington, D. C. : Brookings lnstitute, 1978. Brecher, Jeremy, John Brown Childs, and Jill Cutler, eds. G あ わ 4 / V ⅳ 0 : B00 れ d the New World 0 . Boston: South End Press, 1993. Broad, Robin. U れ 44 / ハ 〃 れ “ : The Ⅳ 旧 B た , 舫 ん 川 酣 わ れ MO れ 40 様 れ d , 4 〃 d the p ん / ゆ 々 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Burrough, Bryan, and J0hn Helyar. B 韲 房 4 れ 5 酣 the Gate: The ん 〃 0fRJR Na ん “ 0. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
A SMALL TOWN GLOBAL GIANT / 81 R 5 Digest is probably the closest approximation Of a global magazine. By the mid-1980s it had forty-one editions in seventeen languages and was selling in the millions in Europe' Latin America' and Asia. Other I-J. s. magazines, including Scientific A 川 4 れ , P ッ - わ 0 ァ , ル れ 舫 0 ら and COS 川 0 々 0 〃 れ , have foreign-language editions but the number Of readers worldwide is much more limited. woessner confesses tO having ambitious dreams. But reality in- trudes. He turns over in his mind a b00k club in the USSR' which was still in existence when we talked. 、 、 Maybe in the next ten years. " A Chinese encyclopedia on the model Of most successful product in Germany? lmpossible. The philippines? T00 small. Maybe a magazine in lndonesla some day. (Schulte-Hillen agrees. "They are beautiful people. l)utch-educated. ") The recent experience in the former East Germany and in Eastern Europe has dramatized b0th the possibilities and limits Of the internationalization Of media. The bOOk club in East Germany is a huge success. people are so hungry for ideas, for practical how-to-do-it advice on living under capitalism' on fixing up your house' taking care 0f children that they will buy expensive bOOkS despite the sorry state Of the economy. After forty- five years Of communism, they are still German' and 、 'Germans think Of bOOkS as being as essential tO a house as furniture. " The difference bet 、 prague and Dresden, says lS 、 zero. '' BOth are German cities, culturally speaking but czechoslovakia has two lan- guages, and that presents problems. poland' HungarY' and the rest are much more problematical. Bertelsmann has bought tabloids in Berlin and Dresden and is developing more. Short, cheap' with a wholly 10Ca1 emphasis' they have been successful investments. But the effort tO export West Ger- man magazines like s 〃 or Spiegel tO the former East Germany have failed. They are t00 fat for a generation brought up on twelve- page propaganda magazines and certainly t00 expensive. Unlike books, which are kept and loved' periodicals are throwaways and are seen as luxuries. East still find the irreverence Of Journalism toward German politicians unsettling. West German mag- azlnes, says Schulte-Hillen, are aimed at 、 、 nosy whO like seeing their leaders cut down tO size. The advertising Of the west completely misses the mark in the east. ln the affluent west the appeal is 。 、 You don't need this, but it will make you happy. lt will excite you. '' But in the new eastern provrnces Of Germany there is real need. "The same advertising that iS effective here is not dOing the jOb there. '
110 / GLOBAL DREAMS on advertising. By almost any measure it iS becomrng more and more Of a commercial product rather than a vehicle for spreading intellec- tual or artistic work. The French sociologist l)ierre Bourdieu has a reasonably precise measure Of What becommg means. He points out that the Paris publisher 研 Samuel Beckett's Ⅳ 4 〃 g ル Godo sold an average of 2 , 000 copies a year in the first five years after publication. lt eventually became a worldwide classic and still sells respectably. But today's computers are rarely programmed to shOW this sort Of patience. Some publishing executives argue that crit1CS who decry the com- mercialization Of literature are being elitist and antidemocratic. peo- ple are buying the books they want. lt is the failure of the education system and the collapse of family discipline that is turning the United States intO a land Of illiterates. They P01nt out that once-obscure Latin American literary figures and such writers as the Egyptian NobeI laureate Nagib Mahfuz would never have been known outside their own countries but for the global publishing conglomerates. If readers don't want tO take Henry James, Faulkner, orWittgenste1n to the beach, that is not the fault 研 S. I. Newhouse or Reinhard Mohn. Publishing executives like to point out that small presses have sprung up t0 6 Ⅱ the gap left by the decisions of the large commercial publishing houses to cut back on poetry, essays, literary novels, and analytical history by little-known authors. University presses have carved out specialized niches and flourished. Small, independent bookstores have expanded, using computerized merchandising and business-school management techniques, and a number 0f indepen- dent bookstores became "superstores," so successful, in fact, that the chains copied them or tOOk them over. (Borders, the most successful of the independents, was acquired by Kmart. ) But there is something a little disingenuous about this. As the March Hare explained to Alice, ツ like what I get" is not the same thing as 、 'I get what I like. " People are influenced by what is avail- able, visible, and publicized. SmaII publishers do not have the finan- cial resources tO support full-time writers. publishers' decisions about what gets published and わ 0 ル it is published are important in the development of public tastes. Good books in ever greater quantities are being published by the conglomerates, but they are overwhelmed by much greater quantities 0f ever trashier books. The danger is that because trade publishers are in the fashion business," as Richard Snyder puts it, they are usmg their market power, whether or not they intend t0 d0 so, to
BOOKS BY RICHARD J. BARNET The Ro ビ な ' Red G / 4 尾 : When America Goes tO War The Presidents and the people The A ル 明 : America-Europe-Japan Makers of the Postwar world R ビ 4 / 立 り : Restoring American ℃ r in a l)angerous Decade T わ ビ も ビ 4 れ 4 パ : Politics in the Age of scarcity The G 〃 な : Russia and America G / 0 房 / R 訪 : The Power of the MuItinational Corporatrons (with RonaId E. Müller) R00 な 0 ー Ⅳ : The Men and lnstitutions Behind U. S. Foreign policy T わ ビ Eco 〃 0 川 ァ 0 D ビ 4 舫 ー 〃 レ ビ 〃 〃 0 〃 4 〃 d 尺 ビ レ 0 行 0 〃 ス ″ 催 T ル 4 (with Marcus Raskin)
434 / NOTES Chapter Three. A SmaII Town Global Giant 1. G 川 4 れ Media D ア れ 〃 お (internal Bertelsmann company history), p. 6. 2. B な 川 4 ″ れ USA, Bertelsmann brochure, p. 6. 3. Milton Moskowitz, The G あ わ 4 / Ma 黻 e 中 (New York: MacmiIlan, 1987 ) , p. 70. 4. lnterview with MichaeI Jurgs. 5. "Reinhard Mohn: Der Bertelsmann," p. 310. 6. ル . , pp. 308 ー 309. 7. LioneI Kaufman, "Are Our Print Media Going GlobaI?" Ma 黻 ⅲ g の M 市 4 D “ な わ , December 1984 , p. 72. 8. Ⅳ 4 ″ & 尾 扣 ″ 川 4 / , Apr. 25 , 1988 , p. 11 ; Ben Bagdikian, "The Lords of the GIobal VilIage," N 酣 わ 鳩 June 12 , 1989 , pp. 805 , 818. 9. Ⅳ 4 〃 & 尾 ″ 川 , Apr. 25 , 1988 , p. 11. 10. Stuart J. Elliot, 。 、 Foreign Execs Put U. S. Books in Focus," A 廰 g ス g ら June 22 , 1987 , p. S -14. 11. Dr. Mark Woessner, 、 'Bertelsmann's Strategies for Growth Markets," (Ber- telsmann brochure), 1990 , p. 8. 12. Reinhard Mohn, S ″ “ お 5 T 房 04g あ ル な 〃 訪 ゆ (New York: DoubIeday, 1988 ) , p. 121. 13. ル . , p. 27. 14. B な 川 4 れ れ Ma 〃 ag ど 川 夜 な N に ル 5 , August 1990 , p. 2. Chapter Four. Of the Making of Books 1. New Yo 黻 石 川 , Mar. 25 , 1990. 2. Herbert R. Lottman, "Reunification Frankfurt," pu わ ″ 5 Ⅳ た , Nov. 2 , 1990 , p. 18. 18. Ⅳ 4 〃 & 尾 、 厄 4 川 , Feb. 21 , 1990. 17. New Yo 黻 石 川 ぉ , Feb. 21 , 1990. 16. ル 畆 15. New Yo 黻 石 川 ぉ , Oct. 2 , 1986. 14. N ビ ル Yo 黻 石 川 ぉ , Dec. 10 , 1990. 13. Rebecca Piirto, 、 、 I Love a Good Story," ス 川 た 4 れ D ど 川 ogra 々 ん cs , JuIy 1989 , 12. N Yo 黻 石 川 ぉ , Mar. 5 , 1990. Mar. 18 , 1991. 11. 、 、 The Diseconomies of Scale," Eco 〃 0 川 , Apr. 7 , 1990 , p. 25 ; New Yo 黻 Mar. 1 , 1990 , p. 8. 10. Jason Epstein, 、 、 The Decline and Rise of Publishing," New 物 黻 R 卲 ル , 9. N ル 物 黻 石 川 , June 30 , 1991. 8. James D. Hart, The Po 々 B00 た (Oxford: Oxford University press, 1950 ) , 7. Ⅳ 4 〃 & 尾 ノ 0 ″ 川 4 / , Oct. 8 , 1992. 6. lnterview with Tom Englehardt. 5. Wa ″ & 扣 川 4 / , Mar. 28 , 1990. 4. 、 、 Goodnight, Goodnight M00 ⅳ " Ha ゆ ' 5 , June 1991 , p. 59. 3. Ben H. Bagdikian, "Assembly-Line Publishing," 石 た た れ , May/June 1990 , み れ 5 , p. 288. p. 44.
Business/Economics THE VITAL PORTRAIT 0F TODÅY'S NEW GLOBÅL (ORPORÅTIONS AND HOW TIIEY ARE Ⅶ A 円 NG LIFEIN 0 HOMES AND A(ROSS THE EÅRTH. "GIobaIization ” is the business buzzword of the decade, yet what does it really mean for people in the United States and around the world? ln G ん み 記 D 襯 s Richard 3. Barnet, coauthor of the groundbreaking G ん み 記 eac ん , and John Cavanagh go behind the hype tO reveal how a few corporations are shaping a new world economy—and with it changing culture, politics, work, and family life throughout the world. With stunning portraits of today's new corporate giants—including Sony, BerteIsmann, PhiIip Morris, Levi Strauss, Citibank, and Nike Barnet and Cavanagh expose how these ob companies are steadily replacing the politi- cal power 0f sovereign nations; controlling the flow of money, goods, and infor- mation across the globe; and affecting everything from the fundamentalist strife in the Third WorId to the products we eat, drink, smoke, and wear at hO ー 第 e. G ん わ 記 D s is an invaluable t00 は Or anyone who wants to understand the new glObaI economy and hOW it is changing people's lives across the earth. "Well•written and voluminously researched.... [A] very impressive work that should serve as a Baedeker for all those concerned about the fast-changing eco- nomic fortunes Of nations and billions of their citizens. —Peter H. Stone, The Bos 〃 Globe "PuIIs together an astonishing amount of data on how these ob corporations are changing the world. ” —R. C. Longworth, Chicago Ⅲ 肥 I( ll D 】 . B n [ T is the author of G ん み 記 e “ ん (with RonaId E. MüIIer) and ten other books. His articles have appeared in The New 催 , ″ 挈 催 , The e ル e and numerous other periodicals. He lives in Washington; D. C. 】 0 H n ( qvq n A G H is the coauthor of seven books on the world economy and is currently a FellOW at the lnstitute for P01icy Studies and the Transnational lnstitute in 、 Vashington, D. C ” where he lives. 旧 ー 川 Ⅱ 慟 Ⅱ Ⅱ 川 川 Ⅲ 旧 XO ( 川 CYJ097 GlobaiC)rearns lmpertai Co 「 po 「 ヨ 取 ) ns ancithe New VV0[ld 0 「 de 「 U sed. G 00d ver design by Kevin Moehlenkamp er photograph by Harris Wells A Touchstone Book PubIished by Simon & Schuster New york ロ ヨ 日 515 ロ ロ