XXii Preface attention has been paid tO environmental problems and policies in Eastern and Western Eu- rope, Japan, and the developing nations, as well as in the United States. This fourth edition of E れれ襯例 I Eco れ 0 襯沁イ PO ″ cu is an economics b00k, but it goes beyond economics. lnsights from the natural and physical sciences, literature, and political science, as well as Other disciplines, are scattered liberally throughout the text. ln some cases, these references raise unresolved issues that economic analysis can help resolve, whereas in Oth- ers they affect the structure Of the economic analysis or provide a contrasting POint Of view. Students looking for additional sources Of information on this subject don't have tO lOOk very far. A number Of journals are now devoted either exclusively or mostly tO the tOPics COV- ered in this bOOk. One, ECO ん c 記 Economics, is a Journal dedicated t0 bringing economists and ecologists closer together in a common search for appropriate solutions for environmen- tal challenges. lnterested readers can also find advanced work in the field in んれ d ECO れ 0 襯た s. , 面″記砿 E れか 0 れ襯例 I Economics れ d M ロれ 20e 襯例 4 E れれ襯例 I and Resource ECO- れ 0 襯た s, , 0 ″尾 e and E れ硼 ECO れ 0 襯た s. , and ルル I 0 レ尾面″ m 4 among Others. New resources for student research projects have been made available in response tO the growing popularity Of the field. ()riginal research on tOPics related tO international environ- mental and natural resource issues was formerly very difficult for students tO conduct because of the paucity Of data. A number Of good sources now exist; among these are Ⅳ 0 ″尾 (Washington, DC: Oxford University Press, published annually), which has an extensive data appendix, and OECD E れか 0 れ襯 e れ I Da (Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Devel 叩 ment, published periodically). Further sources on the field and the profession Of environmental economics can be found on my Web site. The address is: http://www.colby.edu/personal/thtieten/sustain.html. ◆ NEW TO THIS を D ー ON The fourth edition has increased the international focus of the book. Greater attention has been paid tO environmental problems and policies in Eastern and Western Europe, lndia, and Other developing nations than was the case in the previous edition. New boxed examples highlight special t 叩 ics, including: ( 1 ) Achieving Fertility DecIines in LOW lncome Countries: The Case 0f KeraIa, lndia; ( 2 ) EIectricity DereguIation in CaIifornia: What H 叩 pened?; ( 3 ) Does PharmaceuticaI Demand Offer Sufficient Protection to Biodiver- sity?; ( 4 ) The ReIative Effectiveness 0f Transferable Quotas and Traditional Size and Effort Re- striction in the Atlantic Sea ScaIIop Fishery; ( 5 ) lnnovative M0biIe Source PoIIution Control Strategies: Sing 叩 ore; ( 6 ) The "Natural Resources Curse ” Hypothesis; ( 7 ) Private lncentives for SustainabIe DeveI 叩 ment: Can Ad 叩 ting SustainabIe Practices Be Profitable?; and Fuel subsidies The role of hydrogen as a fuel source RenewabIe portfolio standards The EPA "Environment Threats to Children ” initiative RiSk assessment procedures New topics covered include: ( 8 ) PubIic/Private Partnerships: The KaIundborg Experience.
XXVi P ce Texas A&M University Richard T. Woodward George Washington UniversitY Anthony Yezer ln preparing this editi()ll' I am especially indebted t0 Randy Wigle' Wilfrid Laurier UniversiW' for his detailed, helpful suggestions ・ I have been fortunate t0 have been aided bY many extremely capable student research as- sistants over the years. Dana Wheeler' KellY st00S' and Andrea Jones helped me to produce this edition. working with such fine young men and women has made it all the more obvious tO me why teaching is the world's most satisfying profession. FinaIIy, I should like t0 express publicly my deep appreciation tO my wife Gretchen' my daughter Heidi, and my son Eric for their love and support. To 襯 et 例厖 S れイ Co 片 0 e け〃砿わ , Maine
SO, you're the "eights" table. This table, you're the "twelfths. " Over here, "one-fourth. Over here, 。 one-sixth. " Twelfth table, how many preces will you have? Student: Twelve Teacher: The one-eighth table Student: Eight Teacher: The one-sixth table Student: Six. Teacher: Fourth table? Student: Four. ・ Good for you. So if I have eight eighths, how much pizza do Teacher. I have? Student: You have the whole thing. ・ I have the whole thing. If I have twelve-twelfths, how much Teacher. pizza will I have? Student: Whole thing. Teacher: lfl have four fourths? Student: 、Ⅵ lole thing. Teacher: lfl have six sixths? Student: 、Ⅵ thing. 理 ・ Cut up your pizza, please. Hey, let's get the pizza cut up. Teacher. Give it a good cut! 科 ・ Pizzas down. NOW, let's see if everyone has cut up your pies Teacher. according tO their size, what did you cut your pies intO? Student: Twelve Student: Eight Student: Six Student: Four Teacher: What's the value Of each piece? Student: One-fourth 歴 史 国語表現 課外授業 73
Student: One-sixth Teacher. Teacher. Student: Eight. Teacher. Marian. David. Teacher: Good for you, David. Four-fourths. Teacher: Six pieces. How many fourths do you need? Six. tO have tO make a whole pie? Eight-eighths. How many sixths, Manan, Are you supposed ・ Good for you. How many eighths do you need? Student: Twelve-twelfths. whole pie? ・ One-twelfth. Ok, how many twelfths do you need to make a Student: One-twelfth. Student: One-eighth 74 Student: Ours. Student: Us. Teacher. Teacher. Nancy. Teacher. Teacher. 、 Mhat h 叩 pens to the size of the pizza as our denominator Student: One- fourth. Teacher. What' s your pizza divided into? Teacher: You have the twelfths, but who has the largest pieces? whO has the most pieces here? Teacher: Oh! Always shake my hand. You ow , I like the word. Now, Student: They're congruent. What do you ow about each piece called one-eighths? Student: They are equal. Teacher. And what about each one of your sixths? Student: They're equivalent. ・ Good for you, what about the size of each ofyour four pieces? That they are all equal. the size Of each Of these twelve pieces, Nancy? ・ Since this is divided into twelfths, what can you tell us about
lncreases? Student: They get smaller. Teacher: Exactly. Teacher. Now, ⅲ order to sw 叩 , you're gonna be sw 叩 ping the same exact value. SO, if Ron went over t0 the eighth table, he could give three of his sixths and the eighth could give him four- eighths. SO, in a sw 叩 I could give you one-sixth and what would you have t0 give me back? Student: Two-twelfths. Teacher. Two-tweIfths. And that would be a fair sw 叩 . Ok, how about two-sixths? Student: You need four-twelfths. Teacher: Ok, and that would be a fair sw 叩 . Now the whole object here is that you're going t0 make a whole pizza. lt has t0 be uniquely different 仕 om the one you started out with. Student. You have to make a different colored pie? Teacher. That's right. Teacher: Let's get ready for the Pizza Sw 叩 . Student: Ten, nlne.... eight, seven.... six, five..... four, three.... two , one, Teacher. Make sure it' s a fair swap. Make sure it' s fair. You've got tO get a whole pie. ・ That' s it. Stop! Let' s see if you have a multicolored pizza. Teacher. Student: Red, yellow, and green. And you made one whole? Ok. Teacher. : I got three- sixths and two-fourths. Student ・ Ok, so how much of a pie does that give you? Teacher. Student: A whole. Good for you. Now you know, when this all started, Nancy Teacher: 歴 史 数学 国語表現 理 科 課外授業 75
Student: A hundred. Teacher. 、 Mhat would it be, Nancy? lt would be over 100. Teacher: And ifl reduce it, what would it be? Student: Three-fourths. ・ Ok, can I write this, another way? Teacher: 75 %. That's what my fraction is. Student: 75 %. Teacher. Nancy: 72 up your mzzas. You're gonna be sw 叩 ping P1zza P1eces. So, you re gonna cut Teacher: Now, in this sw 叩 that we'll do today, it has to be a fair swap. Teacher: l'll take that sw 叩 , too, Honey. l'll take that. ofmoney, but I glve it to you ⅲ different coins. Student: If you glve me three quarters, I could glve you the same amount return. You don't want to do that? Teacher: l'll take your sw 叩 , ℃ ause you're giving me the same thing ⅲ Student: Um, three quarters back. give me if I give you three quarters? So if I have 75 cents, and we're gonna sw 叩 .. What will you That's what a sw 叩 is, Ron. Teacher: You trade me something and l'll give you somethmg ⅲ return Pizza what? Ron Teacher. Now the fun is going to begin. The great Pizza Swap. be able to create their own pizza. you have tO share the pieces. There's enough for everyone to Teacher: You're going to use these items to create your pizza. Now, Pizza! AII: make Teacher: You know what you're going to do today? You are all going to
PENGUIN BOOKS PubIished by the Penguin Gro 叩 Penguin Group (USA) lnc. , 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U. S. A. Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700 , To 「 onto , Ontari0, Canada M4P 2Y3 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada lnc. ) Penguin B00ks Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R oRL, England Penguin lreland, 25 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2 lreland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Group (Australia), 150 Camberwell Road, CamberweII, VICtoria 3124 , Australia (a division of pearson Australia Group pty Ltd) Penguin B00ks lndia Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi ー 110 017 , lndia Penguin Group (NZ), 67 ApoIIo Drive, Rosedale, North Shore 063 も New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin B00ks ( South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, J0hannesburg 2196 , South Africa Penguin B00ks Ltd, Regrstered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R oRL, EngIand First published in the United States of America by The V1king press 1978 PubIished in Penguin Books 1987 This edition with an introduction by Pico lyer published 1008 9 10 8 Copyright @ Peter Matthiessen, 1978 lntroduction copyright @ Pico lyer, 2008 Allrights reserved A 四ⅲ on of this ok originally appeared in The Ⅳル Yo 既 ISBN 978-0-14-310551-0 CIP data available Printed in the United States of Amertca Set ⅲ Sabon Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, 0 「 otherwise circulated without the publisher's pnor consent in any form Of binding or cover 0 [ h び than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. The scanning, uploading and distribution of this book via the lnternet 0 「 via any other means withoutthe permission of the publisheris illegal and punishable by law. PIease purchase on authorized electronic editions, and dO not participate in or encourage electromc piracy of copyrighted materials. Your suPP0rt of the authors' rights is appreciated.
po lyhedron? Student: A polyhedron. Teacher: Yeah, it's a polyhedron. And what could you tell us about that cube? Something else? Student: lt has many faces. Teacher: lt has many faces, and what are the faces of that cube? Student: Squares. Ok, good. What is the difference, then, between a polygon Teacher: and a polyhedron? Ron, I know you know the difference. What is the difference? A polygon is flat, and a polyhedron----lt has space. Ron. Teacher: Good for you. Teacher: Ok, I want you to clear your desk. And the person next to you is going t0 be the one wh0 you work with. And l'm going t0 place some models on your desk. And 100k at those models real carefully to see what polygons are being used. Ok, now, one person will come 叩 and we will pick out the sh 叩 es that you need in order t0 make the polyhedron that's on your table. Ok, in this, what sh 叩 e do we have? Student: A rhombus Teacher: A rhombus. What do we have here? Student: A square. Teacher. What do we have here? Student: A trlangle. Teacher. What do we have here? Student: Tr 叩 ezoids. What's over here? Teacher. Student. ・ Hexagons. Teacher. And when we put all of these polygons together? And we go 外 仕 om a plain figure t0 one that's occupying lots of space. 業 What is the big word we give tO them, everyone? Student: A polyhedron. 歴 史 国語表現 理 科 - 三 99
0 What ls the Economic COSt 0f the t0 protocol? Electricity Deregulation in California: What Happened? Does Pharmaceutical Demand 0ffer Sufficient Protection t0 Bi0diversity? Find the answers to these questions and many more in the Fourth Edition 0f E れ h0 れ襯 e れね I ECO れ 0 襯れ PO ″ C 彑 by Tom Tietenberg. Accessible tO readers with little or no training in economics, this is the premier introductory bOOk on envlronmental economics. lncorporating up-to-date research and data throughout, the compact text clearly presents the basic eco- nomic principles and the policy issues behind today's most significant environmental debates. New t0 the Fourth Edition Current hOt topics and recent innovations are highlighted, such as renewable portfolio standards, the ro 厄 of hydrogen as a fuel source, and the impact 0f electrical deregulation. lncreased international focus iS provided, including coverage Of the economic cost of the Kyot0 Pr0toc01, the Prot0type Carbon Fund 0f the World Bank, and Sweden's nitrogen oxide charge. ダ A wealth Of new boxed examples spotlights the latest environmentalissues. The book's companion Web site features new chapter-specific "Web Sites Of lnterest," complementing the text analysis. " E れ hO れ襯 e れ / Economics ロれ d PO ″ c. 彑 has excellent and comprehensive tOPic coverage. Tietenberg's skill at describing issues from the relevant interdisciplinary perspectives, in succinct yet penetrating fashion, is one Of the most important strengths 0f the text. ” ー / c ん口召記 c ん "Tietenberg's E れか ro れ襯 / Economics イ Po ″ c. 彑 offers deep insight into environmental issues, and explains the economic perspective tO environmental issues in a very intuitive, convmcing manner. ー K れんれ″ e ツ ee C / 砿 0 れ加 e ENVIRONMEN'T AL ECONOMIC 班 TE 漑 Visit this book's Web site at 魅、町化aW.com/tietenberg P E A R S 0 N Addison WesIey 0104 ー凵
20 ISO 9001 Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated t0 the member bodies for voting. Publication as an lnternational Standard requlres approval by at least 75 % 0f the member bodies casting a VOte. Attention is drawn tO the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifY1ng any or all such patent rights. ISO 9001 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 176 , Q リ 0 襯ッ management 0 れ d q リ 0 襯ッ as- surance, Subcommittee SC 2 , Q リ 0 〃 systems. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 9001 : 2000 ) , which has been amended tO clarify points in the text and tO enhance com- patibility with ISO 14001 : 2004. Details of the changes between the third edition and this fourth edition are glven in Annex B.