検索対象: Human Resources Kit FOR DUMMIES 3RD EDITION
230 Part Ⅳ : DeveIoping Your EmpIoyees learning activities more engaging. Through these types Of activities, employ- ees may earn "badges" for completing tasks or reaching certain milestones, track their progress against Others on a leaderboard, or collect virtual cur- rency tO exchange for rewards. Numerous vendors are popping up tO help companies implement game strategies tO teach employees important skills in a fun, interactive way. Gartner, lnc. , predicts that by 2014 , more than 70 per- cent 0f the 2 , 000 largest global organizations will have at least one gamified" application. E-Iearning has a number Of important benefits: / lt vastly increases the scope and reach of a corporate training effort. / lt eliminates, or greatly reduces, ancillary, nonlearning expenses of train- ing, such as travel and lodging costs for participants. / lt enables students tO work at their own pace and convenience so they avoid production downtime. / lt enables participants not only tO experience training in real time but alSO tO store and subsequently retrieve information transmitted through the course. / lt enables students to set up individualized objectives and to establish milestones tO mark different levels Of achievement. / lt allows for the use of video at the desktop to illustrate key points visu- ally, which can aid in information retention. / lt liberates you or your training staff from classroom presentations, enabling more one-on-one consultations. / lt can be a particularly cost-effective learning tool for small businesses. The downside of e-learning is the lack of human interaction and direct instructor involvement. These solutions tend tO also eliminate the benefit of employees gaining insights from Other employees through group discussions. Here's a 100k at the ways e-learning is delivered by large, mid-size, and many small companies: / lnternet: By far the primary technology responsible for the growth of e-learning, the lnternet is an online training mall, offering a rich and rap- idly growing variety Of workshops, courses, webinars, videos, blogs, dis- cussion groups, and literature. lts impact increased tremendously when high-speed access became widely available. ln addition tO courses that employees can take at their own pace, some lnternet training takes place in real time, where the instructor directs a course Via ChatS and webcasts. Other courses are taught over a period Of days, weeks, or months, with students turning in assignments, occa- sionally communicating in a group format, or intermittently checking in with the instructor. ln some situations, these courses are conducted
2 劬 Part Ⅳ : Dev 可 叩 i Your EmpIoyees There is no one 、 'right" way to determine which specific evaluation method will work best in your company. Here are factors to take into account: / The level of employees being appraised: Some methods, such as MBO appraisals (discussed in the next section), are more suited tO managers and professionals than t0 Other workers. The degree of an employee's autonomy is one key variable that can help shape your range of evalua- tion techniques. / The degree of training needed to implement the program: Some systems, such as MBO and critical incidents (described later in this chapter) require more training than Others tO implement effectively. Make sure that you take into consideration the current workload of your supervisors before you introduce a program that requires extensive training. / AvaiIability of development resources: The more complex the appraisal system, the more time and effort you'll need t0 develop it. SO, if you decide tO launch a system that involves extensive research into hOW jObs are performed and what constitutes outstanding performance, make sure that you have the appropriate time and resources available. Remember, t00 , that as jOb requirements change, the evaluation forms alSO must change, which can mean additional work down the road. Don't bite Off more than you can chew. This section offers a brief description Of performance appraisal systems most commonly used t0day. Devising an appropriate employee appraisal system doesn't have tO occur solely from square one with a keyboard or pen and paper in hand. The overall growth 0f HR technology also has led t0 the development and greater avail- ability 0f performance appraisal software applications. LOOk back t0 Chapter 3 for a primer on this option. 004 ′ setting, 4 れ 49e 揃 e t み objectiVes First created by influential business thinker Peter Drucker in 1954 , manage- ment わ objectives (MBO) is still an extremely popular appraisal system because Of its focus on results and the activities and skills that truly define an employee's jOb. Even more recent forms Of appraisal that require reciprocal feedback, such as the increasingly popular multirater assessment I describe later in this section, are in large part based on the principles 0f MBO. ln a typical MBO scenario, an employee and manager sit down together at the start Of an appraisal periOd and formulate a set Of statements that represent specific j0b goals, targets, or deliverables (milestones that comprise a project or process).
146 Part Ⅲ : Keeping Your Best PeopIe You're likely familiar with many 0f the logistical aspects 0f helping a new hire adjust tO a company, ranging from completing forms and learning about office technology tO parking and security procedures. But the big-picture goal Of this chapter is tO help you create a rigorous, ongoing process that truly helps new employees thrive. ln this chapter, you discover ways tO ensure that newcomers thoroughly grasp their responsibilities, become productive, and feel that they're part Of the team. 伽 の 市 : Go 加 9 84 イ 0 朝 Historically, the process tO help recently hired employees acclimate t0 a new environment has been known as 0 e れ 0 れ . lt usually started with an introduction tO the work area, building, or factory facilities on the first day 0f work, followed by a formal or informal presentation 0f company policies, operating procedures, and Other administrative details. Today, however, orientation is not a stand-alone event but part Of a bigger process, Often called 0 れ わ oard ⅲ g. Some view onboarding as just a new buzz- word for orientation, but it's actually your opportunity tO dO far more tO ensure that new employees become productive and satisfied members Of your staff. The process also is known by 0ther names among HR profession- als, such as alignment, as 豆 m ″ 0 0 〃 , integration, and 0 〃 s 液 0 几 Though you can probably spend a few hours talking with 0ther HR colleagues parsing each term's differences, what they all have ⅲ common is an attempt tO go beyond, while still including, the 01d concept 0f employee orientation. An effective onboarding program consists Of supplemental efforts taken early in a new employee's tenure tO help him build a better understanding Of your organization's culture, his jOb responsibilities, and hOW they tie intO company and departmental priorities. This more holistic approach tO ori- entation is consistent with your strategic HR role. Onboarding goes beyond mere practicality and acknowledges that what new employees learn in their first few weeks has long-term effects on their ability t0 tackle the challenges Of today's faster-paced business environment. ln Other words, starting out on the right fOOt is even more important than employers ever thought. Depending on your company's size and the complexity Of the work, an onboarding program can last from several weeks tO several months. lt covers matters related tO training, scheduled milestones, mentoring programs, and interactive meetings where employees can ask questions about corporate or departmental initiatives. Above all, onboarding is an opportunity. Virtually all new employees are enthralled with the experience they're about t0 have. This period is the time tO capitalize on that excitement and begin building strong bonds between new hires and the organization.
ル 朝 な part. uccessfully bringing new employees onboard isn't the end Of the road for someone in an HR role. Far from it. NOW you need tO Offer them ways tO enhance their productivity, tOOls tO bOOSt their skills, and incentives tO remain loyal t0 your company. You need t0 d0 all you can t0 keep your best people, and, in this part, I give you the tools to do it.
Chapter 9 : The Home Stretch: Making the FinaI Decision 1 れ イ 財 s ル us れ e 4 れ イ ot ル ät ル Definition: Candidates' work ethic ー how hard they're willing to work and how important they feel it is t0 perform to the best of their ability. When important: AII the time. HOW tO measure: Verifiable accomplishments in their last jobs. Evaluation by past employers and co-workers. Track record of successful jobs that goes back tO college or even earlier. Definition: MentaI alertness, thinking ability, capability to process abstract information. When important: Any job that requires the ability to make decisions (and not just fOllOW instructions). HOW tO measure: Evidence of good decision-making ability in previous jobs. AISO through testing. (Make sure, however, that the tests aren't in any way discriminatory. See Chapter 7 and "Discovering the Truth about Background Checks," later in this chapter. ) 揃 ra 揃 t イ to co ル み Definition: General demeanor ー whether the candidate is calm or hot- headed. 、 Vhen important: ln any job where the stress level is high or in any work environment where people must interact and rely on one another. HOW tO measure: The best way to measure these criteria is to ask during the interview about workplace pressure in candidates' previous jobs and how they feel they performed. Definition: The ability to think outside the box ー to come up with innovative solutions tO problems. When important: ln jobs that require imagination or problem-solving skills that don't rely on set procedures. HOW tO measure: Examples of previous work (graphic design work, writing samples, and SO on ). Specific examples of situations ⅲ which the candidate has devised an innovative solution tO a problem. Previous accomplishments or awards. 129
Chapter 15 : Win-Win: Adding VaIue through Career DeveIopment in Chapter 14 , 1 100k at mentoring in the context 0f a training t001 tO help employees develop skills and know-how that benefit your business. But per- haps the most valuable (and certainly the most broad) application 0f men- toring is its use in fostering overall career development for your staff. That differs from its Other benefits in that it takes something Of a longer view ー an eye toward career development that can last a professional lifetime. That means using mentoring tO build attributes that are effective tOday as well as farther down the road. 4 イ 0 曜 t 曜 加 ク 0 s As I point out in Chapter 14 , some abilities, such as people skills, are not easily taught in the classroom or through online courses. Still, these abilities are pivotal tO your staff's ability tO interact with customers and with each other ⅲ the office. Mentoring opportunities are ideally suited to this kind of skills and knowledge transfer. ()ne reason mentoring arrangements work iS that tOPiCS discussed between mentor and mentee are typically kept confidential. If an employee is having difficulty working with some Of her team members, for example, she can com- fortably discuss these dynamics with her mentor in a way that's not possible in a structured setting or With an immediate supervisor. Mentors must be trained tO bring tO HR'S attention any mentee concerns that could amount tO unlawful harassment or discrimination, or any Other POS- sible violation 0f company policy. Mentors can prove tO be especially valuable resources as their partners continue along their career development paths. For instance, a mentor can recommend ongoing learning and training programs that can best serve a mentee's career goals. If a company position opens up that represents a form Of career advancement, mentors can suggest effective strategies tO pursue that opportunity ー or why it may not be a suitable fit. Here are some more ways mentors can assist in your company S career development efforts: / HeIping to identify an employee's long-term career goals: Many people ー those in the early stages 0f their work life in particular ー often fail t0 take the time tO consider hOW they want their careers tO progress over time, and, for that matter, what that progress actually entails. A mentor can kick-start for an employee the process 0f beginning tO think long term, not merely where he wants tO be next year. / Acting a dedicated ro model: lnstead 0f an employee having tO reinvent the career wheel, a mentor can serve as a living, breathing example. The mentee can emulate the behaviors and attributes Of 241
Chapter 14 : Backto SchooI:Tying Training to Business GoaIs ln a mentoring role, an employee WhO excels in a given ー customer ser- vice, for example ー can help less-experienced employees discover how to smoothly interact with customers and colleagues or develop additional skills that require more long-term and individualized attention than a classroom or online course can offer. Mentoring also helps people build interpersonal, or people, skills. Mentors also can serve as valuable training facilitators for high-potential employees you may want tO groom tO eventually take over key roles in your company. (l touch on this in Chapter 15. ) This is no small advantage. As firms brace for significant turnover among their most experienced employees due tO the eventual retirement Of many Baby Boomers, such arrangements may become increasingly important as a means Of passing on valuable expertise tO less-experienced workers and preparing them tO take on positions of greater responsibility. ln short, the opportunity t0 have a close confidant is a valuable ー and appealing ー form Of training. I include a broader discussion Of mentoring as a career development t001 in Chapter 15. G00 イ ル 加 加 ク ln this section, I cover some Of the factors that most often influence the effec- tiveness Of a program, regardless Of which form it takes. 0 曜 cep 阨 the s イ お 4 You should consider the extent tO which participants are open and receptive tO the concepts that are covered in the training. DO your best tO communicate tO all potential participants the specific learning objectives Of the course and how they'll benefit. Make sure that supervisors who've recommended that certain employees attend the program communi- cate tO employees why that decision was made. The 4 市 可 the t t The success of any program hinges largely on whether participants believe that what they're being taught has direct relevance tO the day-to-day chal- lenges they face in their j0bs. 235
Chapter 20 Ten Ways to Become a Great HR ProfessionaI ル な 朝 t Keeping HR in sync with the business Gaining buy-in for HR programs ike virtually every field, human resources is not a static profession. You need tO stay on top Of trends and new developments, but that's not easy t0 d0 when your hands are fulljust carrying out your day-to-day responsibilities. Amid the changes and challenges, which are likely only to accelerate in the coming years, you need tO keep certain principles in mind. This chapter covers ten signposts for success as an HR professional. DeVelop business 0 e t ル ″ ル な 阨 s Leading HR professionals are keenly aware 0f the ways in which their work fits intO their organization's overall business. They dO this by understanding the complexities and operating challenges that set their companies apart from their competitors. A basic understanding 0f business finance is helpful. (Quick test: Can you read a P&L statement?) Even more important, you need an in-depth understanding Of your company's products and services, the competitive challenges it faces, and the strategic initiatives that are underway tO meet those challenges. The best way tO gain this knowledge is tO participate in as many meetings and discussions involving these initiatives as possible. Set up meetings with line managers or Other colleagues tO find out about their strategic goals.
200 Part 川 : Keeping Your Best PeopIe perform his or her job / To attend to a serious health condition that makes the worker unable to / TO care for a child, parent, or spouse with a serious health condition extends tO both parents) / To care for newly born or newly adopted children (note that this right for any 0f the following reasons: Eligible employees are entitled to take up to 12 weeks unpaid leave per year and amended in 2008 , applies to companies with 50 or more employees. Act (FMLA) and, often, analogous state leave laws. The FMLA, passed in 1993 and health situations are covered by the federal Family and MedicaI Leave many leaves Of absence related tO certain military circumstances and family However, very often, a leave of absence is governed by law. For example, these questions on a case-by-case basis. them when the leave is over. Most companies reserve the right to decide what benefits will be maintained and what job, if any, will be guaranteed away from the j0b without jeopardizing their employment status. You decide tion. ln such cases, it's up tO you to determine how long employees can stay policies you adopt regarding such leaves of absence are within your discre- When a particular law does not apply to a leave of absence, then the specific maternity, illness, education, travel, military obligations, and so on. either request or are granted leaves 0f absence for a variety of reasons: status. They resume their normal duties when the leave is over. Employees period Of time 0ff (usually without pay) but still maintain their employment A leave 0f0 わ sence is an arrangement whereby employees take an extended LeaVes 0 ′ み sel regarding the lawfulness of your policy in the state(s) in which you operate. 0ther states, this type of policy is permissible. Make sure to consult legal coun- amounts tO the failure tO pay wages in violation of wage and hour mandates. ln are treated as a form Of wages, so that a policy of 、 、 use it or (eventually) lose it" year tO carry it over tO the next year. ln such states, vested vacation benefits tO allow employees who don't use accrued vacation time in a single calendar employee time Off.In some states, for example, the law requires companies The most important point here is that state authorities heavily regulate intO a single paid-time-off program. / Some companies combine sick time, personal time, and vacation time bets by capping the maximum amount that can accrue. the employee retires or leaves your company. Where lawful, hedge your liabilities for unused vacation time that you may need to pay in cash if
引 5 0 Chapter 18 : HandIing DifficuIt Situations 4 市 the 加 lt's no longer enough tO simply declare in writing your company s commit- ment tO prevent sexual harassment. You need a written policy that spells it out clearly, and you need tO state, in no uncertain terms, the penalties for violating the policy. ln fact, under the law, an employer may be found not liable for certain forms Of sexual harassment if the employer can show that it exercised reasonable care tO prevent and correct promptly any harass- ment and that the employee complainant unreasonably failed t0 take advan- tage Of preventive or corrective opportunities provided by the employer. Establishing and enforcing an antiharassment policy is an important part Of showing that your organization exercised reasonable care in addressing any harassment. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has identified key elements tO include in such a policy, such as a clear explana- tion Of prohibited conduct, assurances that complainants will be protected from retaliation, and a process for reporting complaints Of sexual harassment (see the next section), among Others. The CD includes a SampIe PoIicy Statement on Harassment and RetaIiation. You should consult an attorney for assistance in preparing your own policy. Your company is responsible for making sure that everyone in the organi- zation ー supervisors, managers, and employees recognizes that sexual harassment is wrong and will not be tolerated in the workplace. Some laws require employers tO display posters setting forth information about the law and employee rights in this area, Other laws require employers tO distribute notices directly tO employees containing similar information, and still Other laws require that employers conduct training Of employees in this area. For example, in California and Connecticut, covered employers must provide at least tWO hours Of sexual harassment training on certain tOPiCS and at certain time frames. You may want tO talk tO an attorney or obtain information from your state equal employment opportunity agency, regarding your legal 0b ル gations in thiS area. What the court was saying, in other words, is that it's not enough tO simply adopt and publish a sexual harassment policy. lt's also the company's responsibility tO effectively communicate the philosophy and procedures associated with it tO everyone in the company. Publicizing your policy on sexual harassment can be accomplished yearly. Set a date during the same month each year and send copies Of your poli- cies tO every employee. You alSO may consider developing an online sexual harassment policy manual and training course that you can deliver tO every employee annually.