364 劭叩 / 催 78 So Ⅳロ 2 れ d cyc ″れ 0 Unfortunately, the same is not true for 01d scrap. The market works inefficiently because the product users dO not bear the full marginal social costs Of disposing Of their product. a result, the market is biased away from recycling Old scr 叩 and toward the use ofvirgin materials. The key to understanding why these costs are not internalized lies in the incentives fac- ing individual product users. SUPPOSe you had some small aluminum products that were no longer useful tO you. You could either recycle them, which usually means driving t0 a recy- cling center, or you could toss them intO your trash. ln comparing these tWO alternatives, notice that recycling imposes one cost on you (transport cost) whereas the second imposes another (disposal cost). lt is difficult for consumers tO make this comparison accurately because Of the way trash collection has traditionally been financed (Table 18.1 ). Urban areas have generally financed trash collection with taxes, if publicly provided, or user fees, if privately provided. Neither 0f these approaches directly relates the size Of an individual's payment tO the amount Of waste. The 襯加 cost to the homeowner of throwing out one more unit Of trash is negligible, even When the COSt tO SOCiety iS not. This point can be reinforced by a numerical example. Suppose your city provides trash pickup for which you pay $ 150 a year in taxes. Your cost will be $ 150 regardless (within rea- sonable limits) 0f h0W much you throw out. ln a given year your additional (marginal) cost from throwing out these items is zero. Certainly, the marginal cost tO society is れ zero, SO TABLE 18.1 Description of User Charges on Municipal Waste, Selected Countries CO ″れ〃彑 Australia Belgium Canada Denmark United Kingdom Finland France ltaly The Netherlands Norway Sweden C カ ge C c ″″ 0 れ Flat rate Flat rate or volume Flat rate Flat rate + volume over threshold Flat rate Waste volume Waste volume VoIume + type + transport distance DweIIing size ( 80 % of population) or Waste volume ( 4 % of population) Flat rate CoIIection structure ( 45 % of municipalities) FIat rate ( 53 % of municipalities) Flat rate Flat rate Dwelling size (None: Waste collection paid for from public budget) Households, Households Households Firms Households Fi rms Households Firms Households, Households, Households, Households, Households, Househol ds, Households, Households, firms firms firms firms firms firms firms firms firms Waste volume Source: Ad 叩 ted from J. B. Opschoor and Dr. Hans B. Vos, Eco れ 0 襯た / ー川 m 例なん E れれ襯例 I 怦 0 c ″ 0 れ (Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development): 53 , 1989.
WHAT MAKES A GREAT SHORT STORY? The sudden unforgettable revelation ofcharacter; the vision 0f a world through another's eyes; the glimpse of truth; the c 叩 - ture Ofa moment ⅲ tlme. AII this the short story, at its best, is uniquely capable of con- veying, for ⅲ its very shortness lies its greatest strength. lt can discover depths ofmeamng ⅲ the casual word or action; it can suggest ⅲ a page what could not be stated in a volume. Such is the quality 0f expenence offered you, ln many and di- verse ways, by the fifty short stories which make up this b00k. MILTON CRANE, EDITOR
D な c 豆 0 れ Q ″″ 0 173 Frederick, Kenneth D. , and AlIen V. Kneese. ℃ ompetition for Water," in Ⅳ Scarcity, Ernest A. Engelbert with Ann FoIey Scheuring, eds. (BerkeIey: University of California Press, 1984 ). Griffin, RonaId C. , and Shih-Hsun Hsu, "The Potential for Water Market Efficiency When lnstream Flows Have VaIue," 襯たれ Jo ″ m 記砿 / c ″〃記 Economics 75 (May 1993 ) : 292 ー 303. Howe, CharIes W. "Project Benefits and Costs from National and Regional Viewpoints: Methodological lssues and Case Study 0f the C010rad0—Big Thompson Project," ル記 Resources JO ″ m 記 26 (Winter 1986 ). Kanazawa, M. "Pricing Subsidies and Economic Efficiency: The Bureau of RecIamation, ' 面″記砿ん Eco れ 0 襯沁 36 ( 1993 ) : 205 ー 34. Livingston, Marie L. , and Thomas A. Miller. "The lmpact of lnstream Water Rights on Ch0ice Domains,' んイ Eco れ 0 襯た s 62 (August 1986 ) : 269 ー 77. Organization for Economic C0-operation and Development. Re れ e わ Natural Resources. ・ Economzc 加 ce れ″ s ん r / 襯〃 ro イ Ma れ 20e 襯例日 Paris : OECD, 1987 ). PosteI, Sandra. "Saving Water for Agriculture," in S 砿 the Ⅳ雇・ 7990 , Lester Brown et al. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1990 ). Rubin, Kenneth. E 市 c 襯 e れな加Ⅲ R 0 レ尾 es : なれ d 0 〃″ 0 れ s (Washington, DC: Con- gressional Budget Office, 1983 ). Smith, Vernon L. "Water Deeds: A Proposed Solution to the Water Valuation Problem," r た 0 れ R 卲盟 26 (January 1977 ) : 7 ー 10. SaIiba, Bonnie. "Do Water Markets 'Work'? Market Transfers and Trade-offs in the Southwestern States, Ⅳ R 0 c Research 23 (JuIy 1987 ). Steinbeck, J0hn. The Grapes 砿Ⅲ (New York: Viking Press, 1939 ). ToreII, L. AIIen, James D. Libbin, and Michael D. Miller. "The Market Value ofWater in the OgaIIaIa Aquifer," んロれ d Economics 66 (May 1990 ) : 163 ー 75. WahI, Richard W. M 砿な for Federal Ⅲ催 . ・ S 励豆市 , Property んな , and the 召″砿 Rec 襯 ″ 0 れ (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1989 ). Zamikau, J. "Spot Market Pricing of Water Resources and Efficient Means of Rationing Water During Scarcity," Resources dE れ邵 0 16 (August 1994 ) : 189 ー 210. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. What pricing system identified in Table 9.1 best describes the pricing system used tO price the water you use at your college or university? Does this pricing system affect your behavior about water use (length Of showers, etc. )? HOW? Could you recommend a better pricing system in this cir- cumstance? What would it be? 2 熱 at system is used in your home town tO price the publicly supplied water? Why was that pric- ing system chosen? 3. SUPPOSe you come from a part 0f the world that is blessed with abundant water. Demand never comes close t0 the available amount. Should you be careful about the amount you use, or should you simply use whatever you want whenever you want it? WhY?
TOP FEATURE OS X 改め、 S ⅵ搭載で新時代へ。 Mac が iPhone&iPad と さらにつながる macOS Sierra を - ・“望 0 三 iPhone と テレビとの連係強化で AppIe TV が ホームの主役に ! tvOS 。。史上最大のアップデード、 標準アプリが ディープラーニングで さらに賢く iOS 10 21 Mac Fan ー August 円朝 0 のロつ第盟島 0 電、住 - / * June 13 ー 17 * / He 11 の W W D C 1 6 MENU nT 謝物 ” 0 も L 5F0 Lyft 00n 物第 0 ⅲ 5 n 05- 00 you want tO ′ 00 リ 05 い卩 Geta Car 9 : 41 気 MOf 池 ay. June 13 A 0 ー こ ] つ ( 冖 ・ 0 、 wanna
And tnangles and rhombuses. … ? A polygon. Amy. Ok, so, you started out with a polygon. And now, what d0 Teacher. you have ? A polyhedron. A my Teacher. What is the difference between this structure and the figures you started out with? Um, the figures we started out with were flat and they Amy weren't three- dimensional and this is occupymg space and it's three-dimensional. ・ Good for you. Ok, I want you t0 start thinking about it and Teacher. wrlte down hOW you could use the structure in real li た . Ok, David, what would you dO with a structure that was Teacher. sh 叩 ed like that polyhedron?What would you d0 with it? You use it for a candy 」 ar or save money in it. David ・ Teacher. Oh, so it could be a bank. - -- Nancy. lt could be used for a blueprint for a house or a day-care Nancy: center school. I would use it for either, Um. ..like a fish tank or something. Craig Or you could put, like make it a cage, and put hamsters in there. ・ Ok. Tonight, when you go home, this is what I want you t0 Teacher. do. On your way home, I want you tO 100k around the neighborhood and guess what you're going t0 have t0 find. Student: Polyhedrons? Teacher. Polyhedrons and.. Student: Polygons. ・ And polygons. And I want you t0 wnte down where you see 外 Teacher. these polygons. And what they are being used for. That's 業 - But let's get out our 」 ournals. And in homework today. - your 」 ournal today, besides telling me what you learned 歴 史 国語表現 理 科 101
0 Techn010gy Science 歴 史 HOW can you get through a day A Day without Sneakers without technology? lmagine that one mormng you 、 up and notice your room IS (=strange) , you think, the clock-radio strangely quiet. That's fu nny alarm didn't go 0 化 You wonder what h 叩 pened ー it was working last 数 night. Yikes! What time is it? You can't be late for schOOl ! You stare at the blank black front of the radio, waiting for the digital display to 学 suddenly flash the green light showing you the time. NO help there, you think. "Lights ! I need light! " you say, and fumble for the light switch on the wall. You flip the switch, but nothing happens. Oh, the electricity must have gone 0 仕 , but that's 0kay, you think. You figure you can get dressed easily enough in the dark. Actually, it' s kind 0f fun when the power goes out. Maybe you'll get t0 eat breakfast by candlelight. You feel your way intO the bathroom t0 wash your face. You yank up on the handle of the bathroom faucet and wait for the sound 0f splashing water, but you hear only more eerie silence. You touch the opemng totally dry. You twist and pull the handle this way under the faucet and that, but not a drop comes out. This is weird you think. Can the water be out t00 ? Did I sleep through an earthquake or something? You rush tO your closet and throw open the door. Your brand new sneakers ー where are they? You le them right here on the floor. Aha, you spot the shoebox. You grab it, tear 0 仕 the lid, and thrust your hand inside. AII you come up with is a fistful 0f air. "What's gomg on around here?" you demand. Maybe you can get through a day without water and electncity, but sneakers ー that' s the last straw! Without sneakers, 外 how can you get help, get t0 school, or get anywhere? 業 国語表現 科 - 三 291
116 朝叩 r 6 eP 叩われ怦襯 Lee, Ronald D. , et al. , eds. p 叩″″ 0 れ , 00 and ″川 I Development (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988 ). Lindert, peter. Fe 市れ Scarcity 加襯 er たロ (Princeton, NJ: Princeton UniversitY Press 1978 ). Mahadevan, K. Fe 市 policies 砿 s れ CO ″れ〃 s (Newbury Park, CA: Sage' 1988 ). MaudIin, W. parker. "Patterns 0f Fertility Decline in Devel 叩 ing Countries, 1970 ー 5 " in 催″″ Decline 加 the ん e Developed CO ″れ s , Nick Eberstadt, ed. (New York: Praeger, 1981 ) : 72 ー 96. National Research Council, p 叩われ Growth イ ECO れ 0 襯た D 卲 el 叩 m 例た PO ″ q Q わ (Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986 ). Pimentel, David. "Natural Resources and the ()ptimum Human Population" (a P 叩 er presented at the annual meeting 0f the American Association for the Advancement 0f Science' San Francisc0' 21 February 1994. ) Repetto, R0bert. "The Effects 0f lncome Distribution on FertilitY in Devel 叩 ing Countries," in R ″″ Decline 加 the ん e Developed CO ″れケ s , Nick Eberstadt, ed. (New York: Praegen 1981 ) : 254 ー 273. Ridker, Ronald, ed. p 叩レ″ De I 叩襯 e れた The Search for 立 c ″加翔 e れ (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976 ). Ruttan, vernon W. 'Perspectives on population and Development," / れ市れ面″ rn 記砿 c ″″″ ral ECO- れ 0 襯 / cs 39 (Oct0ber/December 1984 ). sadik, Nafis. The S ね砿Ⅲör P 叩″″ 0 れ 7989 (New York: UN Population Fund, 1989 ). Simmons, Ozzie C. perspectives 0 れ D e ん〃襯 e P 叩″″ 0 れ (New York: Plenum 1988 ). Summers, Lawrence. "The Most lnfluential lnvestment," Scientific ス m / ca れ (August 1992 ) : 132. DISCUSSION QLIES 第 0N5 1. Fertility rates vary widely among various ethnic groups in the United States. Black and Spanish- speaking Americans have above-average rates, for example, whereas Jews have below-average fertil- ity rates. This may be due t0 different ethnicity-based beliefs, but it may also be due t0 economic factors. HOW could you use economics t0 explain these fertility rate differences? What tests could you devise t0 see whether this explanation has validity? 2. The microeconomic theory of fertility provides an opportunity tO determine hOW public policies that were designed for quite different purposes could affect fertility rates. ldentify some public poli- cies (). g. , subsidies t0 people whO own their own home, or subsidized day care) that could have an effect on fertility rates, and describe the relationship. 3. "According tO the theory 0f the demogr 叩 hic transition, industrialization lowers population growth. ” Discuss.
ファイアウォールのルールを自動的に生成ー 329 スクリプトは外部用の IP を要求する。こでは静的な IP 接続をセットアップしているの で、手作業で IP アドレスを入力する。 ExternaI nic IP, or type "DHCP" for DHCP, for connections like ADSL type "NONE" for no dhclient on external nic 10.6.1.2 Setting ExternaI nic IP t0 10.6.1.2 External nic netmask, eg 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.254 Setting ExternaI Netmask t0 255.255.255.254 DO you want t0 enter a gateway default IP address? if you ISP provided you with a default gateway choose Yes Y/N, default What is your gateway IP for your firewall machine t0 route t0, (eg: 184.108.40.206 ) 10.6.1.1 D0 you want statefull firewall or just a110W everything and rely on IPNAT to protect you, I recommend firewalling : ) Choose: y" for statefull firewall or "n" for a110W everything D0 you want t0 forward any ports from the firewall t0 a internal host ip? D0 you want IP Fi1ter t0 10g denied packets? Y/N, default = yes # # # # Denied packets will be logged to /var/log/firewall. 10g # # # # D0 you want t0 install a /etc/ipfrestart script so you can easily reset your rules? Handy if you are trying out new rulesets. Y/N, default = yes D0 you want ftp active mode supprt? when ftping out behind a basic NAT firewall, active mode ftp wont wo ⅸ . This is because normal active mode ftp actually initiates a FTP connection from the server back t0 YOU! and requires more then basic nat to work. The day FTP is gone and fully replaced by something more secure like SSH ・ s sftp will be a day when the internet is large degree more secure. Choose: ツ " t0 switch on active ftp support (recommended) or "n' HAC K # 66
Student: One-sixth Teacher. Teacher. Student: Eight. Teacher. Marian. David. Teacher: Good for you, David. Four-fourths. Teacher: Six pieces. How many fourths do you need? Six. tO have tO make a whole pie? Eight-eighths. How many sixths, Manan, Are you supposed ・ Good for you. How many eighths do you need? Student: Twelve-twelfths. whole pie? ・ One-twelfth. Ok, how many twelfths do you need to make a Student: One-twelfth. Student: One-eighth 74 Student: Ours. Student: Us. Teacher. Teacher. Nancy. Teacher. Teacher. 、 Mhat h 叩 pens to the size of the pizza as our denominator Student: One- fourth. Teacher. What' s your pizza divided into? Teacher: You have the twelfths, but who has the largest pieces? whO has the most pieces here? Teacher: Oh! Always shake my hand. You ow , I like the word. Now, Student: They're congruent. What do you ow about each piece called one-eighths? Student: They are equal. Teacher. And what about each one of your sixths? Student: They're equivalent. ・ Good for you, what about the size of each ofyour four pieces? That they are all equal. the size Of each Of these twelve pieces, Nancy? ・ Since this is divided into twelfths, what can you tell us about