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electronics FOR YOU PLUS+AUGUST 2017 VOL.06 NO.04


THANK An YGROUP EVENT A GREAT SUCCESS For making lndia 曰 ectronics Week 2017 MEEK 2017 H N 0 し 0 6 Announcing 粮 DIA 阯 印 TRO 川 CS WEE K 7-9 FEBRUARY 2018 灯 PO Trade Center• WhitefieId lndustrial Area ・ Bengaluru EIectron iß DASIA ForYou - TEST& 2 も 三 Measurement i ( ON 種 N ( ES For enquiries, please call us on 十 91 -40596605 oremail us at [email protected] 圓 AUGUST 2017 ー ELECTRONICS FOR YOU WWW.E FYMAG.COM

OpenSource For You August. 2017 Volume.05


Overview を い Wercker Wercker iS an open autonomOUS platform tO create and deploy containers for multi-tiered, cloud native applications. lt can build containers automatically, and deploy them to public and private DOCker registries. Wercker provides a CLI based interface for developers tO create DOCker containers that deploy and build processes, and implement them on varied cloud platforms ranging from Heroku to AWS and Rackspace. lt is highly integrated with Docker containers and includes application COde for easy mobility between servers. lt works on the concept of pipelines, which are called 'automated workflows'. The API provides programmatic access t0 information on 叩 plications, builds and deployments. Features Ti ght integratio n with G itHub and B itbucket. Automates builds, tests and deployments via pipelines and workflows. Executes tests in parallel, and saves wait times. WorkS With private containers and container registries. 0 Official website: http://www.wercker.com administer a cluster Of nodes. Features High availability and load balancing. Live migration and Web based administration. State-of-art security via SELinux, and access controls for virtual machines and the hypervisor. Powerful integration with varied open source projects like OpenStack GIance, Neutron and Katello for provisioning and overall administration. Highly scalable and self-hosted engine. OfficiaI website: わ な ps : 〃 www.0ⅵ 尾 0 / Latest version: 4.1.2 Weaveworks Weaveworks comprises a set Of tOOlS for clustering, viewing and deploying microservices and cloud-native 叩 plications across intranets and the lnternet. 0 Weave Scope: Provides a visual monitoring GUI interface for software development across containers. Weave Cortex.• Prometheus-as-a-Service open source plugin for data monitoring in Kubernetes based clusters. weave FIux: FaciIitates the deployment 0f containerised applications tO Kubernetes clusters. Weave Cloud: Combines various open source projects tO be delivered as Software-as-a-Service. References ー = = [ 1 ] http://aurora.apache.0「g/ [ 2 ] http:〃mesos.apache.0「g/ https://docs.docker.com/engine/ [ 3 ] https;〃docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/ https://www.kontena.i0/ 同 同 https://www.0ⅵ「t.0「g/ https://www.weave.works/ [ 7 ] 囘 http.ゾ/ⅣⅣⅣ wercker.com Features PowerfuI GUI interface for viewing processes, containers and hOSts ⅲ order tO perform all sorts Of operations and microservices. Real-time monitoring Of containers Via a single-node click. E asy integration Via no COdin g reClUirementS. By: P 「 of. Anand Nayyar The author is an assistant p 「 ofessor in the department Of computer applications andlT at KC 凵 nstitute 0f Management and Technology, Jalandhar, punjab• He loves tO work and research on open sou 「 ce computing, senso 「 networks, hacking and network security. He can be reached at anand—[email protected] CO. ⅲ . You can watch his YouTube videos at Youtube.com/anandnayyar. OfficiaI website: https://www.weave.works/ The latest from the Open Source world is here. OpenSourceForU.com JOin the community facebook. C0皿 叩 ensou 「 cef0 「 u FO Ⅱ 0 い 00 [email protected] THECOMPLETE MAGAZINE 0N OPENSOURCE - = 、 Source 0 肖 0 www.0penSourceForU.com ー OPEN SOURCE FOR YOU ー AUGUST 2017 ー

electronics FOR YOU PLUS+AUGUST 2017 VOL.06 NO.04


EFYre 0 ョ ェ ら DO-IT-YOURSELF OpticaI SLAVE FLASH TRIGGER n digital cameras, the slave flash is part 0f an external flashgun ()r speedlight) that sits quiet until it sees a bright light.When the slave flash sees a light from another source, it flashes tO trigger the speedlight, which gives a more powerful lighting option than a typi- cal built-in flash unit. Use 0f off-camera flashgun op- tion gives you some great dynamic lighting for wonderful photography that would be difficult otherwise. Here we describe the circuit Of a light-sensitive sensor that detects light impulses and wakes up the electronics tO fire the attached speedlight. The goal is t0 make the circuit small, cheap, isolated and independently powered. The circuit uses inexpensive and readily available components. lts main functions are: 1. Sense the light impulse (from PARTS LI ST 第 K. HAREENDRAN the master flash) using a standard light sensor 2. Verify that the light level is above a constant threshold (which can be altered using a potentiometer tO tweak the detection sensitivity) 3. Trigger the slave flash through a galvanically-isolated (contact-free) electronic switch The author's prototype is shown ⅲ Fig. 1. Fig. た u 物 0 「 ' s prototype ⅲ 物 0 enclosure CircUit and working Fig. 2 shows the circuit Of opti- cal flash trigger. lt is built around phototransistor L14F1 (TI), opt0- isolated triac MOC3021 (ICI), npn transistor BC547 (T2) and a few Other components. This circuit works on the prin- ciple 0f Wheatstone bridge. When light falls on the phototransistor (TI) , its conductivity (and current) increases, which forward biases the driver transistor (T2). As a result, ICI wakes up tO trigger the slave flash; an optical coupling makes it safe tO use even the Oldest flashgun that could otherwise damage your circuitry by high-voltage ignition. However, note that the connect- ed slave flash doesn't work ⅲ bright Semiconductors: ICI TI - MOC3021 opto-isolated triac - 5mm round L14F1 RI 47E L14F1 VRI 22K 6 MT 2 5 MOC3021 ℃ 1 NC phototransistor - BC547 npn transistor Resistors (all 1 / 4- wa % ca 0 の : 3 NC T2 BC547 4 GND 0 CONI FO 日 SWI BATT. 1 3V 十 0 CON2 FOR SW2 RI VRI M / scel 〃 ビ 0 〃 S : CONI, CON2 BA 工 1 - 47- ohm - 22- kilo - ohm potmeter - l-pin connector - CR2032 , 3V ( 0 ⅲ cell (Li-Mn02) daylight or bright am- bient light. Likewise, it may even misfire when you have a very bright source Of artificial light ⅲ its path. The potmeter (VRI) helps you to set correctly the light detection threshold level. The light sen- sor used here iS a generic 5mm round phototransistor L14F1 Fig ・ 2 AUGUST 2017 ー ELECTRONICS FOR YOU THECOMPLETE MAGAZINEON OPENSOURCE C 砒 Of optical slave flash trlgger TheIatest from the Open Source wo is here. OpenSourceForU.com J0in the community at facebook.com/opensourceforu FOIIOW us on Twitter @OpenSourceForU WWW.EFYMAG.COM

electronics FOR YOU PLUS+AUGUST 2017 VOL.06 NO.04


EFY Magazine Attractions During 2017 TECHNOLOGY FOCUS ELECTRONICS DESIGN MARKET SURVEYS MONTH January Computer Vision Feb 「 uary Smart Fab 「 ics Ma 「 ch Lowering Power Consumption lmproving WireIess Signal Performance Building Mo 「 e ReIiabIe Printed Circuit Boards 日 ectronic Component Manufacturing Elect 「 onics Manufacturing Services lndustry OutIook for 2017-18 Exciting TechnoIogies Powering the loT VirtuaI and Augmented Reality Smart Robotics ApriI M ay Devel 叩 er Boards: DIY and Hobbyist Applications Fight of the Processors: Ultra-Low-Voltage Computing TheInternet of Things (MobiIe and Po b 厄 Devices) How to Get the Best Design fo 「 Manufacturing DeveIoper Boards: lndustrial Applications lmproving ThermaI Dissipation WhichlnputTechnoIogies Should You Use Ruggedising Hardware Printed Ci 「 cuit Boards June ー ArtificiaIIntelIigence 5G and Beyond St 「 ategic Electronics MobiIe Handset and Telecom Device Manufacturing LED Lighting July jAugust September lndustrialloT 0 ctob e 「 3D Printing Solar The Brains of Mobile Devices 日 ectronics Manufacturing Equipment (Both SMT and Non-SMT Categories) November Security 0f theIoT Fight of the P 「 ocesso 「 s: High-Performance Computing Test and Measurement December lmplantable and EdibIe Electronics Which Output Technologies Should You Use MateriaIs and Chemicals WouId You Like More DIY Circuits? We Have 側 面 s ! VISIT TODA electronicsforu lfit ・ s electronics, itls here om ELECTRONICS FOR YOU ー AUGUST 2017 WWW..EFYMAG.COM

OpenSource For You August. 2017 Volume.05


Admin NFV: Redefining NetworI< lnfrastructure Network Function \/irtualisation or NFV aims tO transform the way networl< operators architect their networks, by evolving standard virtualisation technology tO consolidate many networl< equipment types ontO industry standard high volume equipment, which could be located in data centres, networl< nodes and at end user premises. ー 現 下 10 ~ elecommunication is the backbone of today's world and it has become an integral part 0 f our day-to-day life. AS competition increases, it is important for telecom vendors tO be cost effective and offer highly efficient connections with greater speed. Telecom data centres and infrastructure are governed by standards, protocols and service quality norms. AIso, they are over populated by a large and increasing variety of proprietary hardware 叩 pliances. Therefore, tO launch a new network service, it often requires the introduction of yet another variety of proprietary hardware, a task that is becoming increasingly difficult. This is further compounded by the increasing costs of energy, capital, technically-trained manpower, etc. The variety Of skills necessary tO design, integrate and operate complex hardware-based appliances poses a real challenge tO bOth the developer and the network operator. Moreover, hardware-based appliances rapidly reach end-of-life. Other cost-oriented issues result in little or no revenue benefits. These constraints/limitations Of hardware-based appliances (). g. , routers, firewalls, etc) has triggered the need for a new radical approach. ご 一 三 一 Figure 1 : Typical network devices found in telecom data centres (Source: 加 $ Ⅳ ル ル ツ 側 確 / 0 々 の ″ 炻 Ⅷ な a 〃 s 加 rma 加 〃 ・ 仂 加 々 加 4- 側 な / 虎 イ 加 ・ m / が カ 砒 ) 66 ー AUGUST 2017 ー OPEN SOU 日 CE FO 日 YOU ー www.()penSourceForlJ.com

electronics FOR YOU PLUS+AUGUST 2017 VOL.06 NO.04


Green TechnoIogy DECISION MAKERS' CONNECT G rowth : 55 % 55 % 41 % 14 % 37 % 15 % -2 % -8 % 19 % 12 % -23 % -9 % ting it either accumulate in landfills, slowly poisoning the soil; or ruining the air we breathe by emitting haz- ardous greenhouse gases. Green or clean technology in- vestments mean backing or funding organisations that have sustainable and environment-friendly products and services. There are some strong industries that are emerging in this domain like water and waste man- agement, green energy, the organic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 agri business, green mobility, and SmaII distributed capacity ・ VC/PE the energy efficiency domain. Corporate R&D ■ Government R&D ・ PubIic markets •Asset finance* Even if, globally, green invest- ments fell ⅲ 2016 , consolidation ⅲ *Asset finance volume adjusts fo 「 re-invested equity. Total values the previous years made the overall include estimates fo 「 undisclosed deals VaIues are 加 US$ b 〃 〃 0 冂 category grow in terms Of capacity Soume: UNER oom と 鰓 N E 間 叩 ⅲ a e Fig. 1 : G10baI new investments ⅲ renewable energy installation from 127.5GW ⅲ 2015 tO porary world, where progress' is Some 0f the key agents 0f environ- 138.5GW ⅲ 2016. Combined renew- defined by constant growth driven mental destruction are the various able sources were responsible for by large manufacturing facilities, the forms Of waste -- industrial, natural, 55.3 per cent of all new power gener- stress on natural resources iS push- chemical, etc. lt's now critical that ated worldwide. These are some very ing our planet towards destruction. we create platforms that enable waste strong indicators Of hOW the investor Therefore, we need to think differ- tO be converted and reused for the community and business evangelists ently, b0th socially and economically. betterment Of society, rather than let- view thiS sector. 川 リ sing Battery? Switch 0 Ⅲ ⅳ 0 ( apaci ! 312.2 281.2 243.6 234 ・ 4 181.4 178.3 112.7 727 U 0 ( 0P0 ( i す 9 中 pa e of storing and discharginglegergy 0 二 物 ー 0 0 Available 作 om 2.5V to 160V 4 Fo 「 Mo 「 e detail, please mailus on [email protected] / [email protected] OR ( 団 us on 十 91-9311-052255 Stride Technology 435 pocket 5 , Mayur Vihar, Phase-1, New Delhi - ⅱ 0091 ELECTRONICS FOR YOU ー AUGUST 2017 WWW.EFYMAG.COM ノ ・

electronics FOR YOU PLUS+AUGUST 2017 VOL.06 NO.04


EFY Note The source COde 0f this project is included ⅲ this month's EFY DVD and is 飜 so available for free download at SO 田 ℃ 巳 efymag. DO-IT-YOURSELF capacitors used are also only 470 い F electrolytic. This does not affect the fan's working speed anyhow. Construction and testing An actual-size PCB layout for the fan speed increasmg regulator iS shown ⅲ Fig. 7 and its components layout ⅲ Fig. 8. After assembling the circuit, 川 一 れ cto : enclose it ⅲ a suitable bOX. - 7805 , 5V regulator ICI FOIIow the testing steps glven - PIC 16F73 microcontroller IC2 below: - H11D1 optoisolator I ロ ′ IC4 - 1N4 ( 刈 7 rectifier diode DI ′ D2 1. After checking the circuit for - BA159 fast switching diode D3 ′ D4 proper connections, connect a 9V - 5V ′ 0.5 、 zener diode ZDI ′ ZD2 battery and switch on the circuit M ル 13 ( 氾 5 power transistor ' ロ ′ T2 using VRI. LEDI on the board 犬 is ( 1/' w ら % ca ′ 施 〃 , “ ぉ s stated 0 ど ru 望 ) : should glow. - 1 ( 氾 - ohm RI ′ R2 2. Check pins 12 and 13 Of - l-kilo-ohm R3 ′ R4 PIC 16F73 chip for pulse output. For -109hm ′ 5 ル R5 第 R6 this, use a logic probe or a CRO, if - 1 k ⅱ o-ohm R7-R9 - 0- ohm R10 available. Pulse-widths vary as you - 1 k ⅱ o-ohm , 16mm plastic VRI vary VRI. You can notice a small shaft potmeter with on/off voltage 0f 0.2V or SO on pin 1 Of switch each Of HIIDI chip with respect tO - 470 F , 25V electrolytic CI the negative 0f the 9V battery sup- - 0.1 F ceramic ply. That means the variable PWM C3 ′ C4 - 15pF ceramic Sine waveform iS correctly generated - 470 F , 4 ( 刈 V electrolytic C5 ′ C6 by the chip. - 1nF, 1kV ceramic C7 ′ C8 3. Now connect a fan to CON2 Miscellaneous: - 1.5A glass fuse FI connector. Make sure you turn on - 9V PP3 battery with BAI 工 1 the inbuilt fan switch. connector 4. Connect 230V mains supply CONI, CON2 - 2-pin connector terminal - On / 研 switch RI ) SI to CONI. lt is advisable to use a - 20MHz crystal oscillator XTALI variable autO transformer and apply - Fan 140V first, to see the fan running. - Heat-sinks for ICI, TI Varying VR 1 clockwise will increase and 2 - 28-pin socket for PIC IC the fan's speed ⅲ steps. The fan - 6-pin socket for IC3 and IC4 can be switched off by turning back VR 1 and switching Off its built-in on/off switch. ages. You need tO use an isolation 5. If the fan does not run, the transformer for the scope, ensur- fuse blows up or 10-0hm resistors ing that you don't touch the oscil- heat up. Check the transistors using loscope's input pin. Otherwise, a a multimeter for emitter-collector small trans former ( 230V primary t0 short-circuit on bOth sides ⅲ 9V secondary) can be connected ⅲ that case. lieu 0f or ⅲ parallel t0 the fan and C io れ . Since this circuit works the secondary voltage ( 9 V) observed on 230V AC mains voltage, extreme for wavesh 叩 e and frequency. This caution is required while testing it. method was used by the author Weanng surgical rubber gloves is ad- for creating the positive and nega- visable to avoid electric shock. tive DC rails and it showed a good sine wave shape With some floating ripples 0f 50Hz, as the mains supply Prof. K. dm わ 朋 is professor 侭 e 切 from 川 åg 叩 C011ege 可 花 c 加 可 0 Guindy, Chennai is not full-wave rectified and the WWW.EFYMAG.COM EIectronics 円 可 ec VoI. 26 is the latest volume in the series, available in 0 igita け m. is a compilation of 21 construction projects and 71 circuit ideas published in EIectronics Fo 「 You magazine. EIectroni PARTS LI ST ⅲ E 日 ・ 一 一 0 ・ ・ 覊 152 ・ お ・ , ⅱ $ 川 This collection of tested circuit ideas and construction projects in a handy volume would interest 訓 classes of electronics enthusiasts—be they students, teachers, hobbyists 0 「 professionals! WWW.lulu.com WWW. magzter.com ( reates pa ( e. ( 0 m WWW. readwhere.com ELECTRONICS FOR YOU ー AUGUST 2017

OpenSource For You August. 2017 Volume.05


Connect with The Techlndustry's Much-Awaited Mega Conference! An EFYGROUP [ 睚 NT Calling わ share their kno ⅷ at the Open Source! convention on most excitjng lndia's 物 ⅲ on Open Source lndia (OSI) is the premier Open Source conference in Asia targeted at nuttuting and promoting the Open Source ecosystem in the subcontinent. S ね as LinuxAsia in 2004 , OSI has been at the helm of bfinging together the Open Source industty and the community. \NWW opensourceindia 14t わ Edition SOURCE INDIA NIMHANS Convention Center OPEN ー BENGALURU 2017 http://叩 ensourceindia. in/osidays/call-papers-osi-2017 S80 Register ロ : 回 回 August 20, 2017 Deadline for submissions: Call For Papers

OpenSource For You August. 2017 Volume.05


Admin 袵 V ー ー 黻 & 0 0 0 OSS/BSS 5 町 ⅸ 0. VNF & 0 0 Ⅵ 臧 u ね t 加 い y 部 EM ま EM 1 を 鼾 い 5 朝 ト VNF2 VNF 1 Figure 2 : NFV ー changing the dynamics of the telecom world Network function virtualisation Network function virtualisation (NFV) is a new way to design, deploy, and manage networking services by decoupling the physical network equipment from the functions that run on them. lt replaces hardware C entric and de dicated network devices with software running on general-purpose CPUs or virtual machines, OP erating on standard S ervers. NFV aims to transform the way network operators architect their networks, by evolving standard IT virtualisation technology tO consolidate many network equipment types ontO industry standard high volume servers, switches and storage, which could be located ⅲ data centres, network nodes and at end user premises, as illustrated in Figure 2. These virtual appliances can be instantiated on demand without installing new equipment. For example, network operators may run an open source software-based firewall in a virtual machine (VM). This involves the implementation Of network functions ⅲ software that can run on a range Of industry standard servers and be moved tO or instantiated in various locations in the network, as required. ln Other words, NFV promotes the implementation Of network functions in software that can run on a range Of standard IT hardware in data centres and be managed (moved, or replicated) without the need to modify the physical infrastructure. The need fo 「 NFV Traditional physical network hardware has always been difficult to change and upgrade. lntroducing a software patch or rolling out a new service on a physical network can take months tO complete and costs a 10t. NFV is a catalyst for structural market changes. lt first started with mobile telecom networks, with the promise Of making them more flexible and far easier t0 upgrade or change and to reduce hardware-related capex and opex. As NFV developed further, service agility has become one of the main drivers ⅲ this space. Compared with the current practices, NFV introduces the following maj or positive shifts: Separation 可 software om わ dw 砿 e. ・ This enables the 4.1 Figure 4 : NFV architecture (Source: 加 ガ ル Ⅳ ル m 勿 加 加 ″ m, / ・ 〃 な 〃 0 S 々 の ″ ル - ル 震 ″ re. 〃 四 ) software to evolve indep endently from the hardware, and ViC e versa. 月 ex 市 厄 deployment 可 network functions: NFV can automatically deploy network-function software on a POOI Of hardware resources, which may run different functions at different times in different data centres. Dynamic service provisioning: Network operators can scale the NFV performance dynamically and on a grow- as-you-need basis with fine granularity, based on the current network conditions. Ⅵ ua 〃 sa ⅱ on : Uses network resources without worrying about where the network is physically located' hOW big it is, hOW it is organised, etc. Orchestration: Manages thousands Of devices. programmable: Can change behaviour on-the-fly. Dynamic scaling: Can change size and quantity. Automation Vlsibility: Monitors resources and connectivity. performance: Optimises network device utilisation. Requires less space for network hardware. Reduced network power consumption and network maintenance COStS. Easier network upgrades. L onger life cycles for network hardware. ⅲ 角 atures 可 、 F Ⅵ = Consumption. F に 国 0 山 00 A on NFV NFV architecture 1. VNF ( ⅵ r 山 network function): A VNF is the basic block in NFV architecture. lt is the virtualis ed network element. 2. EM (element management): EM is responsible for the functional management Of VNF, i. e. , fault, configuration' accounting, performance and security management (FCAPS). This may manage the VNFs through Figure 3 : Features 0f NFV www.OpenSourceForlJ.com ー OPEN SOU 日 CE FO 日 YOU ー AUGUST 2017 ー

electronics FOR YOU PLUS+AUGUST 2017 VOL.06 NO.04


SMART WORLD Why EveryoneIs Switching OPEN SOURCE 0 0 0 0 0 , 0 76 Why Switch to Open Source 78 Keep Stress At Bay with Vehicle Tracking 79 AI Platforms Ready to Deploy 0 0 第 - 0 0 ト 、 第 ■ 物 を 0 0 0 0 Open source makes tasks easier for businesses and customers alike. hile open source may nowadays, hardware and even the AirteI. At present, Airtel entirely be just another tech cloud have started going the open depends upon open source for its jargon tO you, it has source way. "lt is easier tO deploy six important projects and has a transformed operations for many open source technologies than team Of more than 80 engineers tO organisations in the past and can proprietary ones as these are meant continually monitor and improve intrinsically bring an all-new expe- for specific use-cases, " said Anant its developments. rience for your company, tOO. But Kumar, head Of product engineering Substitutes for proprietary what is great about open source and IT, Bharti Airtel. solutions for your business? Essentially, it is Airtel is widely adopting open the ease that brings open source tO source developments tO expand its One Of the most obvious advantages the mainstream, as it makes tasks position in the lndian telecom sec- Of open source is its availability as easier for consumers. tor. Whether it is customer acquisi- an alternative tO proprietary solu- Techn010gy giants like Google and tion or optimising the experience tions. If you want tO switch from Microsoft, network operators such for its own call centre agents, the Microsoft Office tO an open source as Bharti Airtel and Vodafone, and Gurugram-headquartered telco solution, you can find not just one social networking sites like Faceb00k is leveraging open source at all or tWO but plenty Of substitutes. and Google + , all are using open major levels. There are LibreOffice, Apache source tO grow ⅲ the market. ・ Open source has helped us OpenOffice and KOffice t0 give you build elastic, scalable systems at low the closest experience tO Microsoft Unified, profitable model COSt and hence increase our produc- Office at no cost. The original model revolved around tivity," said Harmeen Mehta, global Likewise, if you are looking t0 open source software alone. But chief information officer, Bharti abandon your existing proprietary AUGUST 2017 ー ELECTRONICS FOR YOU WWW.EFYMAG.COM