Foothill Communities - North グ ) , 0 ″ 尾 4 / な , wa 〃 / / 0 ん 〃 OW 〃 co 〃 / / 0 , , ) , 04 ん の ℃ / 0 v な ″ ″ 's seat Q / 、 20W 夜 ・ ー わ ″ co / た ル 00 ホ / 施 ... the 召 ビ v 夜 カ , 〃 ″ な ん g ん c ん " David A. K 叩 lan ( 1999 ) The 〃 co 〃 召 の , s の 励 e か 〃 可 の 尾 al OC ated on roll ing oak-studded hills on the western slope of the Santa Cruz Mountains, together with Port01a Woodside, Valley and Los Altos Hills, is prime residential real estate for the well- heeled 0f Silicon Valley. Each community has unique characteristics that are zealously guarded by its residents. W00dside, which hides most of its wealth behind dense screens Of oak and redwood trees, IS noted for its emphasis on horse property and has an extensive system Of equestrian trails. Portola Valley encourages building styles in harmony with the CO lors and c ontours of the landsc 叩 e. Los Altos Hills tolerate s more overt archite ctural displays 0f wealth and success. AII three towns en. 」 oy strong citizen participation ⅲ 10Ca1 government. ABOVE: 〃 れ 加 催 0 Serra 〃 ig ん ル 28 ″ . "The の ′ 旧 す 召 ea ″ / 第 〃 ん ・ w の , ' ア 初 〃 & 44 ル の な ん Ⅲ ⅲ 〃 / 〃 乃 ℃ ハ ℃ な 0 〃 the s 〃 〃 e. BELOW RIGHT: ル 00 ム . 行 住 d ″ / 0 〃 / ・ ge ん 0 〃 肥 0 ル PO 0 火 d.. BELOW: お ″ 0 〃 E 、 セ . The & m 〃 G の ・ 〃 〃 d clock / ow 既 24
South Valley RIGHT: 4 ga 〃 ″ 襯 尹 0 川 , 4 れ ハ 0 〃 の 4 川 窺 Toro co ⅲ ca / pe 召 ん r な い わ 勗 ⅲ イ 0 尾 カ am ・ ホ 〃 d ビ 〃 C ド 04C ん / 〃 BELOW: G ″ ′ の , 0 To ル 〃 ″ 4 ″ . ( 7900 ) ル ow an 0 ″ の 0 訂 可 、 Ga ⅵ ん 〃 Co 〃 m Ⅲ 〃 / Co / た g 巳 "The / 4 研 e C00 訂 火 4 〃 ge 、 / わ 0 〃 な w 夜 ℃ 加 near view ″ ビ way / 0 G 清 ・ 0 ... w 夜 ℃ robed w ″ ん the g 尾 夜 肥 訂 g ′ 4 〃 イ ′ ・ / 勧 / light / Ⅵ 功 eld, 印 co / 0 尾 イ and 4 施 d w ″ ん 〃 行 〃 / 0 ツ ア ow ビ ハ 可 、 の ℃ 戮 outh 0f the Santa Teresa Hills S anta C lara VaIl ey narrows into Coyote Valley. Orchards, row crops, and grazmg cattle on the hillsides deliver a glimpse of a bucolic pre-WorId War Ⅱ SiIicon VaIIey. But not for long. Developers' S1gns line Santa Teresa Blvd awaiting the next technology boom to spark the inevitable f100d 0f industrial parks and Many Silicon VaIley workers in the bedroom communities that have sprouted on the RIGHT: の 襯 0 〃 、 一 ′ 4 ″ 0 〃 ga ′ 〃 s. GO / ホ 〃 ⅲ ん 立 e ホ , 2280 〃 ec た 夜 ・ BELOW: C 0 レ ' 4 ″ ,. 加 パ な / sites 0W0 ″ / ん ビ next c ん 10 / 0 , わ 00 襯 0 〃 g 立 〃 花 尾 、 召 ん d. 一 ( 0 ( 0 0 0. coyote Valley RIGHT: Calero Co 〃 〃 り , 、 Pa . カ 挈 ⅲ e 〃 肥 dows / McKean 、 R イ わ 0 ra ″ . 22
CLAY SHIRKY 201 There's another way of thinking about tech and social dynamics that's very, very attractive—anybody who 100kS at this stuff has the same epiphany: 。 。 Omigod, the software is determimng what people do! " And that is true, up tO a point. But you cannot completely program social issues either—different mailing lists run on the same SOft 、 but have different cultures; both SIashdot and PIastic.com run on the same software platform, but they have very different cultures t00. You can't separate technological effects from social ones, and you can't specify all SOCial issues ln technology. The group is going tO assert its existence independently Of the software somehow, and you're gomg tO get a mix Of social and technological effects. The group is real. lt will exhibit emergent effects. lt can't be ignored, and it can't be programmed, WhiCh means you have an ongoing 1SSue. And the best pattern, or at least the pattern that's worked the most often, is t0 put into the hands 0f the group itself the responsibility for defining what value is, and defending that value, rather than trying t0 describe everything in the software up front. 2. ) The second thing you have to accept: members are different from users. A pattern will arise in which there is some group Of users that cares 1 れ ore than average about the integrity and success Of the group as a whole. And that becomes your core group, Art Kleiner's phrase for "the group within the group that matters most. The core group on Communitree was undifferentiated from the group Of random users that came in. They were separate in their own minds, because they knew what they wanted t0 d0, but they couldn't defend themselves against the Other users. But in all successful online communities that l've lOOked at, a core group arises that cares about the community as a whole—not Just their part Of it—and that gardens effec- tively and takes care Of the social enuronment by encouragmg good behavior and discouraging bad behavior. NOW, if the software does not always allOW the core group tO express itself, it will invent new ways 0f doing so. On alt. folklore. urban, the Usenet discussion group about urban folklore, a group 0f people hung out together and, over time, got t0 be friends. Enough 0f these AFU reg- ulars were also Silicon Valley dwellers that they decided t0 get together for a real-world barbecue, and tO coordinate that, they set up a separate mailing list, which they called the Old Hats list.
San Jose - Downtown " T ん ビ ア / session oj 、 the カ eg な / 襯 ″ 尾 記 / 第 the わ / 0 施 立 〃 面 , ・ w ん 勧 が ac ビ 記 / わ ビ the 夜 初 肥 厩 seat Q / 、 gov の 刀 〃 肥 〃 / , 〃 〃 〃 / 尾 襯 0 怩 イ の , w. Constitution Of the State of California ( 1849 ) stablished in 1777 , 日 PuebIo de San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian settlement in Spanish California was also the first c 叩 ital 0f the U. S. state. The Legislature convened at the present day PIaza de Cesar Chavez near the Fairmont Hotel in 1850 but was ABOVE: の 0 ル 〃 加 ル 〃 removed by law" tO Benicia after S 〃 面 . The s 〃 〃 e heavy flooding. T0day, San Jose is the 第 ・ 0 襯 D な 0 の , e り , third largest city in California, the . Meadow. 1 lth largest in the nation, and the self- RIGHT: Sa 〃 OS C 加 た styled Capital of Silicon Valley. Although larger and more popu10LIS, 川 ″ 立 0 〃 お McEnery San Jose has long st00d in the shadow CO 川 ℃ 〃 / わ れ C ビ 〃 / e に Of San FrancIsco, its sophisticated BELOW LEFT: "Silicon neighbor t0 the north. Over the last 20 years the city has invested wealth 立 〃 . / 0 襯 e was ビ generated by Silicon Valley in a masslve redevelopment effort tO 可 、 ん g ん 夜 マ d ″ c 襯 / 0 〃 0 〃 attract busine S S and Vi S itors tO itS / ル 2 Co /. 卩 85 り downtown core. These pro. 」 ects have BELOW RIGHT : le few early structures standing. TWO C ん ″ 市 れ 's の な CO of the oldest, Spanish Peralta Ad0be 4 第 〃 〃 川 . 0 〃 ル の z and VictorIan Fallon House, are 膸 必 na 川 記 ド preserved ⅲ a small p ark surrounde d , 切 2 た 's & の ℃ 0 コ 7 た を 第 ド を 第 第 ・ 837 18
as Fairchild such compames Semiconductor and lntel sat in the midst of producing orchards. Many revolutionary technical breakthroughs that changed the world 0f electronics emerged om these bland, 0ften windowless factories. Access tO the skill s of the chip makers enc ouraged customers tO 10C ate nearby, including ABOVE: お か 2 0 42 を ん CO ″ 甲 催 . computer manufacturers Apple and & の , 面 房 イ ル 0 砌 ん わ ⅲ ″ the 〃 〃 / e ノ Sun Microsystems. They were 00 〃 夜 ・ ⅲ the bedroom 可 ・ な ″ ・ 4 浦 〃 0 〃 0 / followed in the 1980S by networking 川 〃 0 ん ん 0 〃 2066 0 / Dr, カ 0 4 ″ 0 & companies and in the 1990S by As the 00 〃 Ⅳ grew ビ 挈 施 イ 加 / 0 lnternet suppliers. Computer systems the garage. e/o 図 〃 〃 / ビ ん eadq ″ セ containing their chips are on display / Od の , 0 〃 カ 〃 ″ e カ 00 , C ~ 夜 プ ⅲ 0. in Mountain View's Computer History Museum (see page 30 ). The huge NASA Ames R&D facility on Moffett Field is working with 10Ca1 authorities tO develop a new research park on the former naval airfield. These communities are struggling along with the rest 0f Silicon Valley t0 manage the results Of their rapid growth and its pressures on housing, に 一 ABOVE: 犬 'g に ル 加 に り ,. transportation, SOCial servlces, and the - Mo 加 ビ わ el / 0 Ridge, li . High-density quality 0f 2 , j00 4 わ 0 townhouses and apartments are being built close tO mass transit. Public so 〃 肥 可 e ん recreation land has been created by ag c ″ / / Ⅲ ・ 4 / ac 〃 ⅵ り , reclaimmg the dump at Shoreline / 〃 the 4 ′ ℃ 4. Park and by acqumng open space preserves on the western hills. み 40 ABOVE: F, ″ 〃 ′ C 〃 セ ′ . The 0 〃 補 / 0 ′ ⅲ 襯 可 、 De , 4 〃 za 面 ⅲ の ・ Co 〃 ege, C ″ 夜 ⅵ 〃 0 , ん OS な c ″ ″ ″ ra / の ℃ 〃 な as well 図 〃 〃 た co 挈 ora セ 々 ′ ℃ se 〃 / 4 〃 0 〃 S. TOP LEFT: ん 0 、 ″ 0 、 . 乃 ビ ⅵ / g ビ Ma / 〃 & preserves the / 0 ル 〃 川 e ノ 93 広 訂 0 尾 第 ・ 0 〃 な . 第 」 ヨ ー 第 1 15
FoothiII Communities - South ; 田 川 0- ー こ コ 川 Ⅲ Ⅲ 川 - ー ー ・ 川 Ⅲ 、 川 - 川 第 物 , ABOVE: 〃 4 vineyard s ⅲ the S anta Cruz Mountai n s Mo 〃 ん 0. , 4 ド な and are noted for their intensely- concentrated premium Wine grapes. Sequentially an Ohlone village, a lumber camp, a mineral springs resort, and an agricultural center, tOday ' s tony residential Saratoga was named after New York's Saratoga Springs. Four blocks of rustic shops and restaurants lining Big Basin 第 y evoke the resort village Of it's Victorian heyday. lnspired by J 叩 an's Fuji-Hakone National Park, city- owned Hakone Gardens dates 什 om 1918 and includes Zen and tea gardens , k0i ponds, lanterns, sculptured trees, and symbolic stones. / ca 〃 / 00 た 0 〃 / ビ window the ↓ Ⅵ / / 0 , / ow. John Steinbeck ( 1939 ) カ / 夜 ・ / 0 4S04 / Covici Obel Prize-winning 、 John Steinbeck moved 仕 om the Monterey Peninsula, first tO M onte S ereno and later tO the S anta Cruz Mountains south Of LOS GatOS, in 1936 seeking seclusion to write his Amencan literary masterpieces 0 / 、 Mice 醂 売 〃 and The Grapes 可 、 テ 襯 ん AIthough the area is still beautiful, residential development has substantially eroded the isolation en. 」 oyed by Steinbeck. Villa Montalvo, the 1912 mansion and 175-acre Saratoga estate of San Franc1sco Mayor and U. S. Senator Jame s Phelan, i s the southern counterpart tO FilOli in showing today's public how the rich lived on ABOVE: 、 の 佐 4 ん ta 〃 these lands a century ago. A non-profit 0 〃 た 愿 / ん ビ ド Co 〃 〃 り , organization operates the estate as a P 醂 ・ ん Ⅲ 〃 肥 c ん 襯 〃 0 ,. center for art, music, and literature. 嶬 宝 h views across Silicon Valley, BELOW: Sa ′ 4 ー 0g4. 〃 炻 〃 e GCII 〃 、 ゞ 15- the former Paul Masson Mountain ac 尾 / 7 ″ な / de 尾 な ea れ Winery, rebuilt after 1906 , also hosts The / ん ge. Big 召 ⅲ concerts in an historic setting on ル ) , sidewalk 訂 or . Pierce Road above Saratoga. M0dern 1 26
co-founder 0f industry giant lntel, that the number Of transistors on a chip was doubling every 18 months ruled unchallenged. The mamage 0f silicon chips with software code in the 1980S led to the personal computer and t0 the information, communicatlons, and entertainment technologies that have revolutionized business and SOCiety. Silicon Valley's ability to create j0bs through technology is recognized and envied worldwide. But the rapid growth and extraordinary wealth generated by this success has its dark side. Housing shortages, traffic conge stion, enuronmental p 0 llution , loss 0f farmland and open space, and the family and social strains caused by Demand for these computer chips an industry that is rocked by volatile grew r 叩 idly, and new compames and the factori es tO make and us e the m business cycles make the region less changed the face 0f the valley. By than paradise. ln spite 0f these drawbacks, hopeful entrepreneurs 1971 , when a trade newsp 叩 er dubbed the string 0f suburban towns 行 om Pa10 行 om around the world arrive daily t0 Alto to Santa Clara "Silicon Valley add their own contributions tO what USA ' the microelectronics era was "the BosweII 0f SiIicon Valley, well underway. For the next 30 years , 」 ournalist Michael Malone, hails as Gordon Moore's the one 0f the greatest technological and 0b servation by Noyce ' s partner and social transfommtions in history. ABOVE: S 〃 0 〃 C / e 〃 / 04 ん g お 4 ビ ん 襯 〃 g 、 リ Ⅷ ん / た e the / ん ℃ e 夜 ・ as of ・ BELOW: レ 7 、 れ ル 7 〃 襯 King 、 g 〃 / ノ 987 sc ″ の ル C ん ・ / e 0 〃 & ノ 0 叫 ″ ⅲ , イ 0 〃 〃 ⅲ 「 た w. RIGHT: 〃 co 〃 レ ' 4 ″ , . 〃 0 川 4 石 ” ル P ん Ov げ / 00 石 〃 g イ / ゆ ″ andSan 面 , 0 ″ 0 e 〃 ″ 豆 as な e 翫 観 ビ 第 初 〃 ビ crowded Ⅷ / / り , ア 00 0 〃 ビ イ な 豆 0 〃 Peak 、 c 行 0 〃 ビ 召 , 4 尾 4 Ridge 行 /. 9
244 C わ 叩 10 An E 厩 e ゆ So 〃 ル 4 S “ 〃 り rog 川 SOftwa 「 e security initiatives. Many companies insist they are ( 「 eating secure software— and slogans tO that affect abound. But when asked how they measure their effective- ness, they are at a loss. Simply demanding that developers create secure code on ツ states a t 「 uism without providing any urgency to follow through. No developer sets out in the morning tO create insecure code—but they do it anyway. The desi 「 e to do it right is naturally present. The missing piece is identifying what is to be done and measuring tO ensure that it is. Training without Assessment Training not on ツ developers but everyone involved with ( 「 eating secure software is an essential activity. Unfortunately, a number Of companiesl have wo 「 ked with felt that once a t 「 aining prog 「 am had been put in place, nothing mo 「 e needed to be done. Nothing 、 was done tO impose objectives, measures, and testing a 「 ound software security. T 「 ain- ing by itself is not very usefulunless there is follow-through on the bigge 「 picture. Lack Of High-LeveI Commitment ー = Make no mistake; implementing an SDL is a serious undertaking. Getting everyone on board requires a sustained e 幵 0 心 Microsoft is no exception. Afte 「 the Gates memo in January 2002 (see Chapter 1 ) , Mic 「 osoft made a staunch public commitment to improve the security Of its operating system. The company was serious about reaching its goal. Microsoft built metrics to track p 「 ogress.lt hired and empowered some 0f the world'sleading software security autho 「 - ities. There was a strong management edict to get it right. Any developer at Microsoft whO created a security vulnerability after completing the corporate security training program faced nserious consequences. ″ AS a result, after an incredible investment 0f over $ 300 million, Microsoft has enjoyed considerable success rolling out its own SDL. At Microsoft, the wealthiest and most powerfulsoftware company in the world with its nearly limitless resources and expertise, the e 幵 0 「 t to adopt an SDL required the involvement and support Of the Chairman of the Board, not to mention an inc 「 edible amount Of e 幵 0 「 t and diligence on the part of engineers and managers throughout the organization. Without this commitment from the highestlevels, even the most powerful grass- 「 oots efforts can hit the w 訓 コ witnessed this myself at a huge Silicon valley technology producer that is a household name. The managers in the executive suite had lost touch with the builders and did not understand why they needed to put their weight behind software security. The initiative lost steam and was not able to get the budget it needed tO succeed. Ask yourself: Wh0 is the executive champion behind software security in your ( 0 ト poration, and how will they get thejob done?
ABOUT THE AUTHORS X111 Eric Johnson graduated from the University of lllinois with a BS in com- puter science in 1993 and has worked at FactSet Research Systems ever S1nce. Currently he is the director Of market data engineering and lives with his wife and tWO kids in southwestern Connecticut. He can be reached at [email protected]/ Er1C Lippert has been a software developer at Microsoft since 1996. He spent his first five years working on VBScript, JScript, Windows Script HOSt, and Other scripting technologies and more recently has been working on Visual Studi0 T001s For Office. He also writes a blog, 、 Mhere he dispenses advice about scripting, security, and (occasionally) romance.When not writing software or writing about software, EriC can be found playing 01d songs on 01d pianos, trying t0 keep the mast of his tiny sailboat upright, building kites, or talking his friends into helping him fix his 97-year-old house. Michael "Rands" Lopp is a Silicon Valley—based software engineering manager. He's ridden a variety 0f high-tech roller-coasters, including Borland lnternational, Netscape Communications, Apple Computer, and a start-up you've unfortunately never heard Of. ln his spare time, he writes a weblog at WWW. randsinrepose.com/ where he optimistically con- templates the fact that the world continues tO get uncomfortably smaller. Larry Osterman has been working at Microsoft since 1984. ln that time, he's worked as a software engineer deep in the plumbing Of various [email protected] products, including MS-DOS, MS-NET, LAN Manager, Windows NT, Exchange, and eHome, and is currently working in the Windows Multimedia Technologies group. Larry lives just north of Seattle with his wife Valorie and their tWO kids, four cats, and tWO horses. Mary Poppendieck is a seasoned leader in both operations and new prod- uct development with more than 25 years 0f IT experience. She has led teams implementing lean solutions ranging from enterprise supply chain management tO digital media, and built one Of 3 、 1 ' s first just-in-time lean production systems. Mary is currently the president 0f Poppendieck LLC in Minnesota. Her book L 〃 SO 〃 曜 4 D ビ 怩 あ 々 川 た An Agile 肪 0 which brings lean principles t0 software development, won the S0ftware Development Productivity Award in 2004.
、 0 れ n 。 6 ② ( 6 血 ⅲ ② 5 Behind 島 ! 0 Ⅲ 気 20 を 朝 ン に Baylands - pg 28 Mountain View Los Altos Cupertino - pg 14 Milpitas Sunnyvale S , 0 ね CIara - pg 16 ' 当 名 し す を ; : San Jose - pg 18 South Foothill Communities - pg 26 第 、 yindy イ を 0 ー / の 第 ・ 二 South Valley - pg 22 , ツ . 。 第 し ・ 弓 ク グ 、