Those portable MP3 players are tiny indeed. Most portable MP3 players, such as the Ri0 500 and the iPAQ PersonaI Audio PIayer, are about one-third the size of, say a Sony Discman and hardly ever skip. MP3 players can be small enough to be integrated into other electronic devices like personal digital assistants and even wrlstwatches ! Finally, unlike other proprietary formats such as Liquid Audio and 、 Mindows Media Audio, MP3 is an open standard meaning no one corporation controls it. For thiS reason, there are more 、 4P3 listeners, software programs and hardware devices than any other CD- quality audio format in the world. Someone might ask: "Will I end up in ⅱ for listening to MP3s?" MP3 is simply a file format. Just like a regular CD, they can be pirated 0 「 used illegally. So make sure you use those MP3s that have the legal permission of the copyrlght holder (artist, record label, etc. ) . That way, you can play more than 100 songs on a single CD with MP3/CD players, store hundreds of songs in your car with car players, and promote your music tO the world by JOining the artist community in 3 18 some MP3-reIated sites.
0 MP3 Science 歴 史 What is MP3? MP3 is a digital file format that shrinks down sound files while still maintaining their original sound quality. MP3 is short fO 「 MPEG Audio Layer 3. MPEG refers to the Moving Pictures Experts Group, an organization that sets international standards for digital 数 formats for audio and video. Before the coming 0f MP3, it t00k hours to download digital sound files. On a 56K modem however, you 学 can download most MP3s in just a few minutes. MP3 is widely recognized as the most popular format for storing and listening tO mLlSIC on the lnternet. Certainly, you're losing some information when you compress audi0 files 仕 om 30 megabyte t0 3 megabyte. But there are some fr1Cks involved. Encoding MP3 s involves a technique called Perceptual N0ise Sh 叩 ing to compress the sound.lt's based on the fact that human ears don't actually hear every single sound in the song. This means that we hear some sounds better than others. If two sounds h 叩 pen at once, we tend t0 only hear the louder one. And if part 0f a sound's pitch is tOO high or tOO IOW we can't hear it at all. There is audiO information in songs that a human ear 」 ust can't pick up. MP3 compresslon removes all the stuff you don't hear anyway. As a result, despite the small size, you don't recognize the change in sound quality. MP3 is one of the most exciting developments in the history of recorded music. Why iS it SO special? The reasons are as follows: MP3 is ideal for lnternet distribution because it downloads in a 軈升 y it sounds great; and there are plenty available online. Some MP3- related web sites have hundreds of thousands 0f free songs ready for 外 you tO e 男 OY. Moreover, with some simple software, a PC and a few 業 clicks 0f a mouse, anyone can create MP3 files 仕 om his own CD collection. 国語表現 科 317
参考文献 General Science Discover the Wonder Scott Foresman Jr. High 1996 Prentice Hall A More Perfect Union BeverIy J. Armento 1997 Houghton Mifflin Company Basic Skills Curriculum 2001 McGraw-HiII Children's Publishing More Reading Power Beatrice S. MikuIecky, Linda Jeffries 1996 Addison-WesIey Publishing Company Microsoft Encarta 2003 EncycIopedia. Compton's lnteractive EncycIopedia DeIuxe 2001. M. J. CIugston, Dictionary of Science. Penguin Books, 1998 崎川範行英和科学用語辞典講談社 1996 広辞苑岩波書店 1997 Reference on the Web : GIobaI Access to Educational Sources A Cybrary for MiddIe SchooI and Beyond http://www.learning.caliberinc.com/index6.html US EnvironmentaI Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/ Middle School Net " for teachers by teachers " http://www.middleschool.net/ Enchanted Learning Com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/Home.html 343
power all life on the earth. ( ということは地球上で太陽の恩恵に浴していな いのは、深海の生物くらいかな ) Though various theories have been advanced tO exp lain the sun' s tremendous energy output, atomic theory finally provided an explanation. Scientists now agree that thermonuclear reactions are the source Of SOlar energy.. AS mentioned above, the sun's core is believed tO be a superhot, extremely dense mass Of atomic nuclei and electrons. Under these conditions, nuclei can collide and fuse into new and heavier nuclei. This is a type of thermonuclear reactlon called a fusion reaction. During such a reaction some Of the mass Of the nuclei changes tO energy. TO sum up, energy from the sun makes plants grow which animals eat, and those animals are eaten by others. The tilt of the earth causes sunlight tO strike it at different angles throughout the year, causmg seasons. The sun dictates the seasons, controls the weather, and drives the water cycle. Without the sun, the earth would quickly become a frozen ball and all forms of li た would die out. We are also very lucky because the earth is just the right distance om the sun. A little closer, and all our life-sustaining water will boil away into space; a little farther and we will all freeze solid. If you stare at the sun directly, powerful solar radiation can blind you for good. For this reason, the sun should never be viewed directly. Furthermore, there is Ⅱ 0 safe way to view the sun through an ordinary telescope. Smoked glass and dark glasses give no protection 仕 om the great concentration 0f heat and light. The only safe way to study the sun is tO pro. 」 ect its image through a pinhole or a telescope onto a white screen. And you should wear sun-block when you go outside for a long periOd. The ultraviolet radiation that the sun glves off can cause permanent damage tO your skin. 182
up. She made it elegant and beautiful. However, she spent far too much money. Lincoln rarely lost his temper with his w 飛 . Now he did. He needed money from Congress to pay for uniforms and blankets for soldiers. Yet he had to go and ask for more money for silly frills, as well. lt had to stop, he told his w 飛 . 57
英語勉強法 世界の非ネイティフリートがやっている The Yale University Method for I. earning EngIish and Other Languages
T H E M A N W H 0 C 0 U L D W 0 R K M I R A C L E S 527 following, as I must admit, no clear logical path, he came t0 the test Of experiment. He pointed resolutely t0 his candle and collected his mind, though he lt he did a foolish thing. "Be raised up," he said. But in a second that feeling vanished. The candle was raised, hung ⅲ the air one giddy moment, and as Mr. Fothenngay gasped, Ⅱ with a smash on his toilet-table, leaving him ⅲ darkness save for the expmng glow ofits wick. For a time Mr. F0theringay sat ⅲ the darkness, perfectly still. "lt did happen, after all," he said. "And 'ow l'm to explain it I れ ow: " He sighed heavily, and began feeling ⅲ his pockets for a match. He could find none, and he rose and groped about the toilet-table. 当 wish I had a match," he said. He resorted tO his coat, and there were none there, and then it dawned upon him that miracles were possible even with matches. He extended a hand and scowled at it ⅲ the dark. "Let there be a match ⅲ that h 4 " he said. He felt some light ob- ject fall across his palm, and his fingers closed upon a match. After several ineffectual attempts to light this, he discovered it was a safety-match. He threw it down, and then it occurred tO him that he might have willed it lit. He did, and perceived it burning ⅲ the midst 0f his toilet-table mat. He caught it up hastily, and it went out. His perception ofpossibilities enlarged, and he felt for and replaced the candle in its candlestick. "Here! ァ 04 be lit," said Mr. Fotheringay, and forthwith the can- dle was flaring, and he saw a little black hole ⅲ the toilet-cover, with a wisp 0f smoke rising om it. For a time he stared 仕 om this t0 the little flame and back, and then looked up and met his own gaze ⅲ the looking-glass. By this help he communed with himself ⅲ silence for a time. "HOW about miracles now?" said Mr. Fothenngay at last, addressmg his reflection. The subsequent meditations of Mr. Fothenngay were 0f a severe but confused description. SO far as he could see, it was a case ofpure willing with him. The nature of his first expen- ences disinclined him for any further expenments except 0fthe most cautious type. But he lifted a sheet ofpaper, and turned a glass 0f water pmk and then green, and he created a snail,
E スー 0 02 R00 を L びゞ LOFT His father, Thomas Lincoln, was hardworking and quiet, and famous for his honesty. He'd had little schooling—Just enough to sign his name. Abraham's mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, was intelligent and curious. She could read a little, but couldn't write at all. を′
224 K AT H E R I N E A N N E P 0 RT E R colors. The taxi dodged ⅲ and out between the pillars of the Elevated, skidding slightly on every curve, and she said: "The more it skids the calmer I feel, so I really must be drunk ' 、 'You must be; ” sald Roger. "This bird is a homicidal ma- niac, and I could do with a cocktail myselfthis minute. ' They waited on the tramc at Fortieth Street and Sixth Avenue, and three boys walked before the nose of the taxi. Under the globes of light they were cheerful scarecrows, all very thin and all weanng very seedy snappy-cut suits and gay neckties. They were not very sober either, and they stood for a moment wobbling in front 0f the car, and there was an argu- ment gomg on among them. They leaned toward each other as ifthey were gettlng ready to sing, and the first one said: "When I get married it won't be jus' for getting married, l'm gonna marry for love, see?" and the second one said, "Aw, gwan and tell that s 加代 to ん why n't yuh?" and the third one gave a kind ofhoot, and said, "Hell, dis guy? Wot the hell's he got?" and the first one said: "Aaah, shurrup yuh mush, I got plenty." Then they all squealed and scrambled across the street beating the first one on the back and pushing him around. "Nuts," commented Roger, "pure nuts. ' IWO girls went skittenng by ln short fransparent raincoats, one green, one red, their heads tucked against the drive 0f the rain. One of them was saying to the other, "Yes, I ow all about 可 . But what about me?" You're always SO sorry for ん襯 . and they ran on with their little pelican legs flashing back and 応 h. The taxi backed 叩 suddenly and leaped forward again, and after a while Roger said: had a letter from Stella today, and she'll be home on the twenty-sixth, so I suppose she's made up her mind and it's all settled. ' "I had a so of letter today t00 , " she said, "making up my mind for me. I think it is time for you and Stella t0 d0 some- thing definite. " When the taxi stopped on the corner of West Fifty-third Street, Roger said, "l've just enough ifyou'll add ten cents," SO she opened her purse and gave him a dime, and he said, "That's beautiful, that purse. '
Science Extinction Why dO animals become extinct? 0 According tO the theory Of evolution, some animal species become extinct ( 「絶滅する」は絶対に知っておきましよう ) because they are less successful than other species that gradually replace them. These so- called 'failed' animals are also unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Humans have accelerated their extinction by changing the envlronment SO rapidly that animals dO not have time to ad 叩 t. For example, the destruction Of lndoneslan rainforests has left nowhere for the orangutan tO 1 ⅳ e. lt would take millions of years for the animal to evolve intO a ground living creature. Hunting is the reason for the reduced numbers and probable extinction Of animals such as the tiger, the blue whale, and the giant panda. Why are turtles a threatened species? TurtIes are threatened because of hunting and loss of habitat. They have been a favorite 応 od for thousands of years, and their population is unable tO sustain the present level Of hunting. The worst threat comes 仕 om the disturbance and destruction Of the turtles' breeding sites. The ideal beaches for turtles to lay their eggs on are also the ideal beaches for vacationers. The result is that hotels have been built near these beaches, roads carry cars whose headlights confuse turtles heading for the beach at night, and tourists disturb the turtles as they lay their eggs. Does keeping pets threaten the survival of some animals? The desire of some people to keep exotic pets threatens many parrots and wild cats. SpectacuIar parrots like the macaw are c 叩 tured in large numbers and exported for the pet trade. This practice has greatly reduced their numbers in the wild, and this trade is now strictly 232