XVIII I N T R 0 D U C T 10 N himself made up Of many selves: a self-taught, serious naturalist whO spent most Of a year driving around the United States to pro- duce a defining book called Ⅳ″ d 〃ル A 川催た and a student later tO be ordained as a zen priest, whose everyday business it is tO see past all the projections and delusions Of the mind tO the hard rock of the world that lies behind them. The book is clearly crafted by a journalist 0f the 01d school, whose range is SO large that he can illuminate his way with references tO Blake and Heisenberg, to Sufi and Native American lore; and yet in those same sentences it iS being 、 vritten by a seasoned novelist, whose jOb is clearly tO transcribe the nature within us as well as without and, in fact, tO see how the two are linked. And most of all—and most unusually—much of the journal-like narrative feels as if it were 、 vritten by no controlling or directing hand at all, but just by the elements all around, so as to take us into that state when we're fully absorbed, transparent to the world. The haunting beauty of the book—what comes to make it a modern classic—has relatively little tO dO with the fact that it describes a land that few travelers had seen in 1973 , and even catches a sound, the voice Of the blue sheep, that, peter Matthiessen suggests, has never been recorded before. lt comes, rather, from a rare mix Of discovery and loss. The drama, the excitement Of any ClassiC record Of an adventure comes fror 蝨 g1V1ng us the heart-pounding sense Of traveling tO some state, lnner and outer, that few people have had the chance to see be- fore; and yet what gives that a larger resonance here, and places it inside an elegant frame, iS the sense, t00 , every 1 れ 0 ー ment, that excitements fade, that everything moves on, that even the epiphanies and discoveries that seemed so exhilarating yesterday will soon be forgotten as the world flows on. You can't hold on to anything. The sensation is uncannily like that of traveling out to one of the great, many-storied buildings that stands alone against a mountainside across the Himalaya. You step lnto a chapel on the ground floor, and make out frescoes barely visible in the faint light, smell centuries of melted yak butter, see the sun com- ing in great shafts through the dust t0 light up ancient Buddhas. Outside are short, steep ladders that lead to the next terrace,
72 THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY PHOTOGRAPHS ROOMS 「 7 attack by German U-boats, hiS partlcipatlon on many guides and 0 utfitters the Allies experimented with capitalized on ne 、 opportu- mountarneerlng ascents, maklng an ai rcraft Harmon's photography nltles ー operating IOdges, 仔 01 れ a mrxture Of ice and offered a unique and boat tours, and pioneerlng remarkably popular perspec- downhill skiing in the wood chips. Despite Rockies. enthusiastic backing by tlve on the Rockies. Many of the photographs repro- Before the days of none Other than Sir 、仮 n ー duced in this book come refrigeration, the ice harvest ston Churchill, the bizarre idea was fraught with 伝 0n1 the collection Of more 、 an important annual problems, and was aban- than 6500 Byron Harmon enterpnse in the ROCkies. lmages, Ⅵ , ・ preserved in Large ChunkS Of ice 、 cut doned the following winter ・ from the frozen surface of the Whyte Museum at Lake Louise and the Bow Ban 圧 The advent of the River, and stored in ice houses for use ln stores and automobile during the hotels the following sum- second decade of the 19th century, made business ln mer. This difficult job provided employment for the Rockies mercurial. Some SWiSS Guides and outfitters traditional enterpnses, such during the off-season. as trail guiding, declined' as North Americans expressed Pro bably the stranges [ endeavour in the history Of their ne 、 found fascination the Rockies took place in With the horseless carriage. Ultimately of course, the the winter of 194 引 at Patricia Lake near Jasper ・ automobile created more Desperate for a vessel which industry ln tourrsm than it would be invincible to undermined, and some Above: Ban 幵 Avenue during the Winter Carnival, 1929. opposite top: The ice palace at the first Winter Carnival, 1917. Prisoner Of war labour was used tO construct the palace. 〇 pposite わ 0 om : Ph0tographer Byron Harmon on CastIeguard Mountain, 1924.
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his skills were wider well. Havmg enjoyed a good education his talents were many and varied. Through his own vast experience he also acquired a useful knowledge 0f the ways 0f the world and was a great help t0 the Pilgrims in their business dealings. If it had not been for WinsIow, we would not have known what any of the PiIgrims looked like, because he is the only Pilgrim whose 畝ま第 portrait has survived. This portrait shows his kind and friendly face and reveals that he was a gentleman 0f some dignity. Like Bradford, WinsIow was a good writer and collaborated with Bradford ⅲ the writing of the 1622 book, Mo ' s e 厄 0 れ , the first book published on the colony. His writing style is professional and he had an excellent eye for detail Often noting and recording events missed by Bradford. Together they provide a first class record. WinsIow was baptized on 18 October 1595 at Worcester. He was a de- scendant Of the WinsIow family Of Kempsey, Worcestershire, where the estate was called 'Kerswell'; so he later called his estate ⅲ Plymouth ℃ areswell'. His early occupation was recorded a printer but in 1624 at the age 0f thirty, he described himself a yeoman. ln 1614 , when he was nineteen, he was betrothed ⅲ Leyden tO Elizabeth Barker. His wife died on 24 March 1621. On 12 May 1621 , Edward Winslow married Susanna White, the widow of William White, which Bradford described the 'first marriage ⅲ this place'. WinsIow was elected Governor three times, sharing the position with WiIIiam Bradford. He performed well ⅲ office and the colony pro- gressed under his le adership. Winslow also played a critical role ⅲ all the negotiations with the lndians, participating ⅲ many meetings, especially those held t0 establish peace with the great lndian chief, Massasoit. FoIIowing h1S periOd Of service ⅲ the colony, WinsIow returned tO England where he served the new commonwealth government 0f the Puritan revolutionary Oliver Cromwell, a foreign ambassador negotiating new treaties inspired by Cromwell's religious policies ⅲ such far-flung outposts the West lndies. He died ⅲ the West lndies 0f a tropical disease. Captain Myles Standish Standish was the heroic soldier ⅲ the colony. He was also one 0f the more colorful figures ⅲ the Pilgrim group and, if there was a f01k hero among their number, it was MYles Standish, wh0 was affectionately known by those he protected ℃ aptain Shrimp . Standish was a brave and enterprising soldier wh0 initiated and led many Of the exploring parties ⅲ the new colony, fearlessly penetrating virgin tracts 0f untamed land, leading the Pilgrims from one day t0 the next. lt was Standish wh0 defended the Pilgrims against the lndians, repulsing attack and personally killing the worst Of the lndian leaders. lt was Standish wh0 trained them ⅲ the art Of self-protection The Pilgrim leader Edward Winslow. He リ bl d 0 〃 ん experænces ーれ ん 0 〃 do encouraging future settlers travel the New World. 6
マルチスレッド・サーバー・ * Return the opened Socket Obj ect protected Socket getSocket ( ) * Set the Messenger obj ect. This method is called by the * Mu1tiThreadedServer c1ass which sets the concrete Messenger * Obj ect created by the subclass 0f MuItiThreadedServer class void setMessenger(Messenger mess) thiS . mess=mess; return SOC ; リスト 3 Messenger クラス * Abstract c1ass that sends wraps the business Obj ects tO send * across the network import Java. iO . * ; public abstract class Messenger implements Seria1izab1e protected Obj ect 0bj ; protected Database DB ; * Constructor takes the Database object and reads the previously * stored business Ob 」 ect . The attribute Obj h01ds the AddressBook * Ob コ ect which is set in the main method Of AddressB00kServer class public Messenger(Database DB) throws IOException, CIassNotFoundException,FiIeNotFoundFyception, StreamCorruptedException this . DB=DB ; obj=DB. read() ; * Writes the business objects tO the Database public void save ( ) throws IOException DB. write() ; UNIX MAGAZINE 1999.4 33
Discussion Questions FURTHER READING 13 Cairncross, F. Green, 加 c.. ・ Guide ん B 加 e れ the Environment(Washington, D. C. : lsland press, 1995 ). A noted economic journalist explores how business can become part of the solution. LOVins, A. , L. H. Lovins, P. Hawken. "A Road M 叩 for Natural Capitalism. ' 〃耀イ召加 e R ( 1999 ) : 145 ー 158. A vision suggesting that business strategies built on a more productive use of nat- ural resources can SOlve many environmental problems at a profit. Oates, W. E. , ed. , The RFF 施 r 加 E れ ro れ襯例 I and Resource れ 20e 襯 e (Washington, D. C. : Resources for the Future, lnc. , 1999 ). A collection. of short, highly readable commentaries on sub- jects ranging from biodiversity and climate change tO environmental justice. Stavins, R. , ed. Economics 砿肱 e Env か 0 れ襯 e れた Selected イ加の , 4th ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, lnc. , 2000 ). An excellent set of complementary readings that captures both the power of the discipline and the controversy it provokes. World Commission on Environment and Devel 叩 ment. 0 Co 襯襯 0 れ″ル (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 ). An enormously influential book that has set the tone for international discussions of sustainable development. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Ascher, WiIIiam. 14 の Go m 襯例なⅢル 4 ル ral R 0 ce & ・ Po ″ c. F ん r 加の叩加 0 Co ″れ否 (Baltimore, MD: J0hns H 叩 kins University Press, 1999 ). Brander, James A. and M. Scott Taylor. "The SimpIe Economics of Easter lsland: A Ricardo-MaIthus ModeI of Renewable Resource Use," 襯催たロれ Eco れ 0 襯た肥 Vol. 88 , No. 1 (March, 1998 ) : 119 ー 138. Portney, P. R. "The Growing Ro 厄 of Economics in Environmental Decisionmaking,' E れ ro れ襯 e Vol. 40 , No. 2 ( 1998 ) : 14. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. A central concept in the Beyond 2 ん / m 添 view Of the future is the finiteness Of resources. ln The ″襯 e R 0 ″尾 e , JuIian Simon makes the point that calling the resource base "finite" is mislead- ing. TO illustrate this point he uses a yardstick, with its one-inch markings, as an analogy. The dis- tance between ⅲ , 0 markings is finite—one inch—but an infinite number Of points is contained within that finite space. Therefore, in one sense, what lies between the markings is finite, but in another, equally meaningful sense, it is infinite. ls the concept 0f a finite resource base useful or not? Why? 2. This chapter contains two rather different views of the future. Because the validity of these views cannot completely be tested until the time periOd covered by the forecast has passed ()O that pre- dictions can be matched against actual events), hOW can we ever hope t0 establish whether one is a better view than the other? What criteria might be proposed for evaluating predictions? 3. Positive and negative feedback loops lie at the core Of systematic thinking about the future. As you examine the key forces sh 叩 ing the future, what examples 0f positive and negative feedback 100PS can you uncove r?
The B た P s な / Mo / Environmental n は N 加ー Resource E ( onom 5 3 For several decades economists have been with topiCS such as exhaustible resources and pollution, but during the last two decades, the frequency of related books and articles has accelerated rapidly. 5 ConsequentIy, we've come tO better understand the relationship between humanityand the environment and ・ how that relationship .affectsmand is affected by, economic and pol itical instituti ons. This knowledge has allowed politicalleaders to forge new solutions to old problems. Eco- nomic principles underlie fundamentally new approaches to controlling pollution, making better use of scarce water supplies, stemming deforestation, and limiting climate change— t0 name but a few 0f the areas that have been transformed. ln this book you will be introduced to these economic principles and the entire spectrum Of economic approaches tO producing better environmental outcomes derived from them. Thinking About the ー瞰 u 肥 The two visions presented in this ch 叩 ter (the basic pessimist model and the basic optimist model) demonstrate areas of concern that will be given closer scrutiny later in this text. They also highlight the key relationships that motivate the conclusions drawn by authors 0f those visions SO that we can assess the adequacy Of these relationships as guides tO reality. Example 1.1 points out, speculating about the future is a risky business. The pessimist and optimist visions we examine were chosen from the literally hundreds that exist because they define, in some sense, the endpoints Of a spectrum. We shall, Of course, explore not only these endpoints, but the vast intervening territory as we proceed through the b00k. ◆ THE BASIC PESSIMIST MODEL One end 0f the spectrum is defined by an ambitious study published in 1972 under the title The んね併 0 and subsequently updated and revised in 1992 under the title B 0 れイ the ん / 襯添 . Based on a technique known as 豆 e 襯 s d れ襯 / cs , developed by Professor Jay For- rester at MIT, a large-scale computer model was constructed tO simulate likely future out- comes Of the world economy. The most prominent feature Of systems dynamics is the use Of feedback loops to explain behavior. The ル e ac んん叩 is a closed path that connects an action tO its effect on the surrounding conditions, which in turn can influence further action. AS the examples presented subsequently in this chapter demonstrate, depending on hOW the relationships are described, a wide variety Of complex behavior can be explained by this technique. Concl 005 of the Pes m Model Three main conclusions were reached by this study. The first suggests that within a time span of less than a hundred years with no major change in the physical, economic, or social rela- tionships that have traditionally governed world devel 叩 ment, society will run out Of the non- renewable resources on WhiCh the industrial base depends. When the resources have been 50ne article that is generally credited with sparking a renewed interest in natural resource problems is JOhn Krutilla, ・℃ onservation Reconsidered, ” 2 襯催たれ ECO れ 0 襯たた 57 (September 1968 ) : 777 ー 786.
しゆっしよしんたい 570 しゆっとう しゆっしよしんたい出処進退しんたい 3 しゆっしん出身ー東京大学の出身である be a graduate 0f T0kY0 University / 九州出身で ある come [be, hail] 伝 om Kyushu / 出身校 ((i)) one's alma mater ; the schOOl one went tO [graduated from] / 出身者く学校の〉 a gradu- ate ; 《米》 an alumnus ( が . -ni 》 ( 男 ) ; ( ( 米》 an alumna ( が . -nae 》 ( 女 ) / 出身地 one's home ; one's hometown ; one's home city [village] one's bi rthplac e. [ 文例 ] しゆっじん出陣ー出陣する takethefield;go to war [the front]. しゆっすい出水 a f100d; an inundation ; a freshet ( 雪解けなどによる ) ー出水するく川が 主語〉 overflow ( banks) ; く土地が主語〉 be flooded ; be inundated. しゆっせ出世 success [(( 文 )) advancement] ⅲ life ; promotion ( 昇進 ) ー出世する succeed [get on, make one's way] ( ⅲ life) ; rise [go up, advance] ⅲ the world ; make headway ⅲ life; rise t0 greatness [ 2 high position] ; get ahead in the ((business) world ; be promoted ; make [win] a name for oneself / 出世した人 a suc- cessful man / 出世の秘訣 secrets 0f success [a successfullife] / 出世魚 fishes that are called by different names as they grow larger/ 出世街 道を歩む ( ( 文 ) take the highroad to success [fame] / 出世頭 the most successful 《 of one's classmates) / 出世作 a work which has won [earned] the author distinction ()s a novelist) ; a work by which the writer has made a name for himself / 出世第一主義 careerism ・匱例 しゆっせい 1 出生 a birth ー出生地。冂パ birth- place ; 0 ' s place of birth / 出生届 a report [register] of a birth / 出生届を出す have [get] the birth ((of one's child)) registered / 出生年 月日 one's date of birth ( 略 : d. 0. b. ) / 出生率 a birthrate. しゆっせい 2 出征ー出征する go to war [the front] / 出征している be at the front ; be on campaign / 出彳正軍人 a soldier ⅲ active ser- vice [at the front, going tO the front]. しゆっせき出席 attendance ; ( ( 文 ) ) presence ー出席する attend 朝 meeting) ; present 0 - self ((at) : put in an [make 0 れ e ' 引 appearance ( 顔を出す ) / 出席している be present 朝 t 》 / 出席が不規則である do not attend regularly ; ( 文 ) ) be irregular ⅲ attendance / 出席をとる call the roll ; take the register ( 学校での ) / ( 学 生の ) 出席カード an attendance card / 出席者 a person present ; く総く >v the attendance ; those present / 出席者数 the number 0f people present / 出席日数 the number 0f days [times] 。膨 has attended / 出席簿 a roll book / 出席率 the percentage Of attendance. [ 文 : 例 : しゆっだい出題ー出題する set sb a problem ((in mathematics) ; set questions (for an ex- amination ⅲ English)) out Of (the textbook material); set [prepare] an examination paper / 出題者 a proposer 《 of a problem 》 . [ 文 しゆったん出炭ー出炭する produce [yield] coal / 出炭量 [ 額 ] output of coal(from) ; coal output. じゅっちゅう術中一術中に陥る play into the hands (of) ; fall into [be caught in] the trap ((of)) ; be taken in [( 文 )) entrapped] 《 by 》 . しゆっちょう 1 出張 a business trip ; an Offcial tour [trip] ; a tour 0f duty ー出張する travel on (offcial) business ( tO 》 ; go on a business trip ; make an official trip ( to 》 / 出張させる send [dispatch] 訪 ()o Hokkaido) / 出張を命じ られる be sent [ordered ()o (o)] to (Kyushu)) on business / 出張教授する give lessons at one's pupil's home / 出張員く役人〉 a dispatched 0f- ficial ; く代理人〉 an agent / 出張所 an agency ; a branch 卩 oc 引 ] offce / 出張旅費 travel ex- penses ; a travel(ing) allowance. [ 文例 : ] しゆっちょう 2 出超 an excess Of exports over imports. しゆってい出廷ー出廷する appear ⅲ court ; present oneself at the court / 出廷を命じられ る be subpoenaed ; receive a subpoena ; be ordered tO (appear (n) court. しゆってん出」 the source ; the authority ー出典を示す name [indicate] the source ((of) ; give an authority (for) ; <iE 石寉に > give chapter and verse 《 for 》 . しゆっど出土 [ 考古』一出土するく物が主語〉 be excavated [unearthed, exhumed] ((at a site, from the ruins of... 》 ; be found (at)) ; く場所が 主語 > produce ; yield / 出土地 the site [loca- tion] at which ()n artifact)) was found [ex- cavated] ; the find site / 出土品 an (important) archaeological find ; an unearthed [excavated] article. [ 文例 : しゆっとう出豆頁 ( ( 文》 presence ; appearance ; ( ( 文 ) attendance ー出頭する appear ; attend ; present oneself ((at)) ; make one's [put in an] appearance ; turn [show] up; report personally finish the course. しゆっしよしんたい政治家の出処 進退には常に充分な理由がなけれ ばならない . A politician must always have a gOOd for every mOve he makes. しゆっしんうちの社長は農家の出 身です . The president of ou 「 company comes frOm 2 peasant family. / 新内閣の閣僚中 5 人ま でが官僚出身者である . As many as five members of the new Cab- inet are fOrmer government Of- ficials. the occasion ・ / せひご出席下さい taries were on hand tO celebrate た . A 信 e number of digni- れを祝ってお歴々が大ぜい出席し record Of attendance is bad. / しゆっせき彼は出席が悪い . His positiOns. schoolmates have risen tO high が多い . Many of my former g 。 fa 「 . / 私の同窓には出世したの 世するぞ . At that rate he will しゆっせあの調子だと彼は相当出 ますように . Kindly give us the pleasure Of your company. / 会 は出席者が多 [ 少な ] かった . The meeting was well [poorly] 計 - tended. / 送別会には出席者が 200 名以上あった . ThefareweII meet- ing was attended by mo 代 than 200 persons. しゆったい入試の化学の出題者は 中野教授だということだ . I hear that the chemistry paper in the entrance examination was set by Professor Nakano.
THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY 爪 PHOTOGRAPHS 49 Opposite. Packtrain fording the became a talented skier, and Among the most success- Sunwapta River, National ん 1 guides were B ill Peyto , established a boat concesslon Geographic C01umbia lcefield at Maligne Lake. The boat Jimmy Simpson, Donald Expedition, 1924. 。℃ urly" PhiIIips, and Jim house he built there in 1929 ハわ ove : Campfire smudge at Bre 、 vster.With the advent still stands. The guiding Calumet Creek, A. C. C. / of the automobile in the business begun by Jim and Smithsonian Mt. Robson Expedition, 1911. Smoke from 1920 s, trail riding declined, Bill Brewster at Banff, smudges kept mosquitos and eventually became Bre 、 vster and Other business opportu- horseflies away. Transportat10n and Tours. mties presented themselves. 気 h the reso urcefulness they had demonstrated on the trail, many of the guides became entrepreneurs, providing a variety of services. J ⅱ m メ Simpson built Num-ti-jah Lodge at Bow Lake. CurIy PhiIIips
the contest. 彼はそのレースの出場資格を失った He was dis- qualified from (taking part (n) the race. 出場する【参加する】 take part 》 , par- ticipate ()n 》 ( ☆後の方が堅い語 ) ; 【競う】 com- pete 《 / h 》 ; 【参加を申し込む】 ente 「 , enter (one- self) fO 「 . 彼はこの前のオリンビックで走り幅跳びに出場した He competed in the long jump at the last OIympic games. しゆっしん出身名①【出身地】 one ・ s home- town ( ☆子供時代を過ごした所やずっと住んでいる 所をさすこともある ) ; ( 通例有名人の ) one's birth- ace. ( ) 「あなたの出身 ( 地 ) はどちらですか」「神戸で す」 "Whe 「 e are you ″ om ? " •(l'm ″ om ) Kobe. /斤0m K0be. "/"Where d0 you come ″ om ? を・ 0 come ″ om ) Kobe. " (kWhere did [have] you come ″ om ? は出身地に関係なく 「どこから来たのか」の意 )/"What is your home- town?" "(lt's) Kobe. /Kobe is. を ( ☆ルわ e 「 e is your hometown? に対する答えは lt's in Hyogo Prefecture. など ) Where are ou 十「 om ? l'm from Kobe 0 しゆっせい出生名 (a) bi 「 th. ー出生地 the him as a 、 Mriter. これは彼の出世作だ This work established C(?SSfu/ man in ou 「 company. 彼は我が社の出世頭だ He is the mo 立 suc- /adder 0 / success. the top. /He な running 叩 [c/imbing] the 彼は出世コースに乗っている He is on ん 5 way ladder of success. world [ ( 会社で ) in the company]; run up the ーとんとん拍子に出世する rise rapidly in the ahead] in the world; ( 昇進する ) get p 「 omoted. ceed [win (great)) success] in life; rise [get ( 会社なとでの昇進 ) p 「 omotion. ー出世する suc- しゆっせ出世 ( 人生における成功 ) success in life; reaucrat]. na/ly a gove 「 nment 0 幵 ic [( 軽蔑的》 a bu- 彼は官僚出身だ ( = もと官僚だ ) He was ongi- ( その他の表現 ) my a/ma mater. などの返事も可能 ) graduate 0 ー M University. /M University is graduated ″ om ) M University. " (kl'm a "What college did you graduate ″ om ? " •(I ( の「出身大学はどちらですか」「 M 大学です」 mate 「 / mo må:tar/. ( ☆通例単数形で ) ②【卒業した学校】 ( 母校 ) 《書》 one ・ s alma Belgian, ″ om B 「 ussels. 彼はベルギー人でプリュッセルの出身です He is a しゆっちょう 625 place Of one's わ液わ (åthe place where one was born の方がロ語的 ) ; ( 特に有名人の ) one's birthplace. ー出生届 the 「 egist 「 ation 0f one ・ s 粉なん一出生率 a わ耘市「 ate. 出席名 p 「 esence 朝い (an) しゆっせき attendance 朝 0 ( ☆出席回数 のときは 0 ). 出席者 ( 全体 ) those (who are) present; ( 出席 者数 ) an attendance 《。 / 1 0 の ( ☆単数扱い ). ー 出席簿 a 「 (book); 《英》 a register. ー出席調 べ a lca 止ー出席をとる ( 名前を呼んで ) c 訓 the 「 0 take [d0] the 「 0 call; check attendance. ( ☆《英》では call[mark]the 「 egister が普通 ) 講演には多数の出席者があった A lot of people came [ 0 (hear) the lecture. ( ☆最も口語的 . ) / The lecture Ⅳお well ( → P00 日 y ) attended. / There were a large ( ←→ smal) number Of 四 op 厄 present at the lecture. ( ☆ There was a large attendance at the lecture. よりも普通 ) 病気のため彼の出席率は悪かった His attend- ance ( record) was P00 「 [bad] because he was SiCk. 万障お繰り合わせの上ご出席ください You 「 at- tendance is requested 出席する《やや書》 attend ( ☆日常会話 では go , come で表わすことが多い ) ; ( 会合などに顔 を出す ) turn out 《 / 0 の ; ( 出席している ) 《やや書》 be present (at) ( ☆日常会話では be here [there, at … ] で表わすことが多い ). ー彼女の送別 会に出席する go [come]to her farewell party; attend [( まれ ) attendat, x attend t0] he 「 fare- well party. 披露宴に出席できるかとうかお知らせください Please let me know if you can attend the wedding 「 eception 0 「 not. の「昨夜会合があったんだよ」「ばくは出席す べきだったの ? 」•we had a meeting last night. " "Should ー have been e 肥 ? を しゆっだい出題する ( 作る ) make an examina- tion [a test] question; make [draw] up an examination; ( 出す ) set a question [a p 「 Ob- 厄 m ]. ー出題者 a 「 son who makes (exami- nation) questions. ー出題傾向 [ 範囲 ] the tend- ency [range] Of examination que 立 / 0n5. / 度の試験は教科書からは出題しません the next exam l'm not going tO make questions from your textlX)0ks. しゆっちょう出張名【会社員礦】 a business trip; 【公務員の】 an officialt 「 ip; 【修理のためなど の】 a service ( 訓 . ー出張費 trave/(ing) ex- penses. ( ☆手当としてもらうのは a travel(ing) al- lowan ( e ) ー仙台に出張を命じられる sent [ordered] ()O (o) t0 Sendai on business. 彼はロンドンへ商用で出張中だ He is now in London on わ us / hess [on 日わい e55 な / ]. 出張する第 make [go 。司 a business [an official] trip 00 Osaka); go 00 Osaka 》 on business; travel on business 00 Osaka)). ( 仕事 6 )