WhO Was Abraham 0 ? April 11 , 1865. After four terrible years, the American Civil ・ War—the war between the North and the South—•、 Mas almost over. 、 6 、 it 、 clear that the North would win. President Abraham Lincoln had fought the war to prevent the rebel South from leaving the Union. He wanted the country tO stay 0 〃ど country—the ・ United States Of House, the the White 、 Mindow Of From the America. 1 the big crowd ぞ・ addressed president
lt was unusual for children to be living in the White House. The presidents before Lincoln had only grown-up children. The whole country was lnterested in the luincoln boys. People sent them presents, especially pets. They had a pony and two goats that ran around and destroyed the White House gardens. Sometimes the goats got inside the house. Tad once made a sled out of a chair and had a goat pull him right through the middle of an elegant party ・ Lincoln never scolded the boys or tried t0 make them behave. Neither did Mary. They were allowed tO burst intO the president's office—it didn't matter 59
38 THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY 爪 PHOTOGRAPHS travellers in the Athabasca During the height of activity tlme operated a fur trade VaIIey. Swift offered in and around Banff, the supply depot in the Ath- accommodation and vicinity ofJasper 、 yet abasca Valley. This structure informatlon, and operated a awaiting its heyday. The fur became known as Jasper cable r across the trade 日 1 into decline in the House, and the name Jasper was applied to the general Athabasca River. 1850 s, and with it ceased the tW1ce annual passmg Of the area. Jasper House, probably the oldest exlsting building voyageurs thro ugh the in the Rockies at the time, Athabasca Valley. The next periOd Of visitation ended was destroyed by railway abruptly in 1881, when after surveyors ln 1910. They used almost a decade of survey- 1tS 、 MOOd tO fashion a raft ors' tOil, the CPR abandoned with 、 vhich tO cross the Athabasca River. the Yellowhead Pass route. ln 18 男 , Lewis Swift, an Thus, in the late 19th A. merican expatrlate, became century the Jasper area was the 、 Milderness domain Of a the first settler in the area few Natives, trappers and which would later become Jasper National Park. He homesteaders. lt would stay built a cabin east of the that way until after Canada's present tO 、 beneath the second transcontlnental cliffs of The Palisade. There railway, the Grand Trunk he ranched cattle and traded Pacific, was proposed in wi 市 the 10Ca1 Natives. 1902. Before the coming of the Jasper" had been an railway, Swift's Place" was a employee ofthe H udson s well known stopover for Bay Company, and for a Top: 」 asper House, a Hudson's bay Company supply post in the Athabasca Valley east 0f 」 asper, in 1872. Opposite top: Swift's Place in 1909. Lewis Swift was one of the first settlers in the Athabasca Valley. Opposite bottom: Construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway through Yellowhead Pass in 1911.
THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY PHOTOGRAPHS 55 At var10 us tl mes in the early and mid-1890's, the atten- t10n Of mountameers had been riveted on the yet unclimbed Mt. Lefroy near Lake Louise, and also on Mts. Hooker and Brown further north. South of B anff, the most desi red peak 、 M [. Assiniboine, popularly called "the Matterhorn of the Rockies' Assiniboine is the sixth highest peak in the range. lt is a lan dmark 応 r hundreds Of kilometres in the mountarneer S Vie 、 frOI . Other summits. Various expeditions organized by に n , Wilcox and others in the 1890 ' s , had increased the knowledge of the mountam and its approaches, but had failed to ascend the peak. None t00 secretly it 、 vas Columbia on Columbia lcefield ー the second highest ln 1901, Edward hoped he would achieve a Whymper, conqueror ofthe publicity coup by climbing mountaln in the Rockies ー European Matterhorn and the Canadian Matterhorn as and Mt. Bryce, one of the most difficult peaks in the may other peaks in the Alps, well. convinced the CPR tO Being past his mountarn- range. Whymper made viS1tS tO sponsor him and a troupe Of eermg prime, Whymper had the ROCkies in subsequent SWiSS Guides in a summer Of no real interest in this summers. ln 1905 at GIacier exploration in the ROCkies. objective. Other than a Whymper was to lend his series Of ne 、 relatively easy House, he met Sir James ascents near Vermilion Pass Hector, then 69 years 01d. stature [ 0 published ac- Hector had been geologist and in Yoho, he accom- counts of the Rock1es by and doctor to the Palliser authoring a few himself. He plished little of note. ln Expedition of 1857-60. 、 alSO tO make suggestlons September 1901, Assinib0ine During this expedition was climbed by Whymper s tO the CPR concerning the Hector travelled extensively companion Of the summer, establishment Of facilities in the Rockies, and amongst and the building of trails. the Reverend James Other accomplishments Outram. (pronounced 00T - made the first crossrng Of rum). The ascent ofAssin- Kicking Horse Pass. lt is iboine was one Of Outram S fortunate this meeting Of many n10 untalneermg tWO glants Of explO ration achievements in the sum- was recorded on 創 m. mers of 1900-1902. He also made first ascents Of 、 4 [ 1 し一 Opposite: Mt. Assiniboine, the "Matterhorn of the Rockies" 1899. Above: 」 ames Hector (seated), with Edward Whymper, at Glacier House, 1903.
92 THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY 爪 PHOTOGRAPHS 0 plague the mine. lt closed in climbed the same year. The While there had been a lack road to the base of the Of human activity in the 1921. Miners 0n1 Pocahontas mountam 、 completed in Jasper area in the quarter cen tury following comple- roughed out a track tO 1924 , and a tea house operated nearby om 1929 tion of the Canadian Pacific Miette Hot Springs, the Railway [ 0 the south, Rockies' hOttest, in 1910, t0 1972 ・ and built the first bathhouse industry and enterpnse came quickly to the north country there in 1913. During a strike with the establishment of in 1919 they constructed a hot p 。。 1. The federal Jasper Forest Park, and the constructlon Of the G rand government oversa 、 construction Of the 18 Trunk Pacific Railway. One Of the most promment kilometre Miette HOt Springs road in 19 , as a industries had itS origln in the discovery of coal on the DepreSS10n make- 、 project. Full development of slopes of Roche Miette in 1908. Two years later, Jasper the springs took place in Park Collieries began Above: The co mine at 1 男 7 ・ pocahontas, some time between mining the claim. Produc- Mt. Edith Cavell has 1910 and 1921. long been one Of the most tion peaked in 1912 and the tO 、 Of pocahontas, named popular sightseeing destina- Opposite top: Early developments at Miefte HOt tions in the Jasper area. The after the noted mining Springs, ca. 1920. Miners from mountam 、 named in 1915 centre in Virgima, sp rang up Pocahontas built these on the banks of the Ath- tO commemorate nurse structures. Edith Cavell, executed for abasca River. Soon after, Opposite わ ottom. Climbers on assisting the escape of Allied failing economrcs, strikes the summit cornice of Mt. Edith prrsoners Ofwar. lt 、 first and accidents began tO Cavell, 1943.
10 THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY 爪 PHOTOGRAPHS skill, the dynamic Van The origin of the CPR s Cornelius Van Horne, appointed General Manager Horne iS best remembered mountaln hOtelS has a for his strong advocacy of ofthe CPR in 1881, and later stronger connectlon tO the national parks. lt was largely logiStiCS and economics 0 「 its Vice-President.With a successful rail 、 record in as a result of his lobbying railway operation, than any that Banff, Yoho and original desire tO establish a the US, Van Horne 、 Glacier national parks came business ln tourrsm. 0 save touted as "the ablest railway into being in 1885 and 1886. the expense of hauling heavy general in the world", and dining cars up and down the was broughtto Canada to Horne s name IS C01 れ - memorated in the range Of oversee the constructlo n and grades of Kicking Horse and mountams lmmediately 、 operatlon Of the CPR. Given Rogers passes, the CPR con- the huge debt incurred in of Field. structed Mt. Stephen House constructlon Of the rail 、 vay, at Field in 1886 , and stationed a dining car at Van Horne was always on the 100k0ut for 、 tO save Rogers Pass, replacing it with a building called and make mo ney in the Glacier House a year later. rall 、 vay S operations. ln this he 、 very ・ successful. Passengers could step 0 the train and dine in the heart When he saw the popularity of the dining Of a fantast1C mountaln stops, he quickly expanded landscape, which four years facilities tO allOW overnight earlier had been uninhab- accommodation. A fledgling ited, trackless bush. lt was railway, the CPR found itself an expenence in the in the hotel business as well. world of travel. Along with his business The dining facilities were acumen and managerial the brainchild of William
384 V I R G I N ー A W 0 0 L F apples were in the 10 化 And so down again, the garden still as ever, only the book had slipped into the grass. But they had found it ⅲ the drawmg room. Not that one could ever see them. The window panes reflected apples, re- flected roses; all the leaves were green ⅲ the glass. If they moved ⅲ the drawing room, the 叩 p 厄 only turned its yellow side. Yet, the moment after, ifthe door was opened, spread about the floor, hung upon the walls, pendant om the ceiling—what? My hands were empty. The shadow ofa thrush crossed the car- pet; om the deepest wells ofsilence the wood pigeon drew its bubble ofsound. "Safe, safe, safe," the pulse ofthe house beat softly. "The treasure buried; the room.. ” the pulse stopped sho れ . Oh, was that the buried treasure? A moment later the light had faded. Out in the garden then? But the trees spread darkness for a wandering beam of s 皿 . So fine, so rare, coolly sunk beneath the surface the beam I sought always burnt behind the glass. Death was the glass; death was between us; coming to the woman first, hundreds ofyears ago, leavrng the house, sealing all the windows; the rooms were darkened. He 厄代 it, 厄 her, went North, went East, saw the stars turned ⅲ the Southern sky; sought the house, found it dropped beneath the Downs. "Safe, safe, safe," the pulse ofthe house beat gladly."The Treasure yo 町 s. " The wind roars up the avenue. Trees stoop and bend this way and that. Moonbeams splash and spill wildly in the rain. But the beam of the lamp falls straight om the window. The candle burns stiff and still. Wandering through the house, opening the windows, whispenng not t0 wake us, the ghostly couple seek theirjoy. "Here we slept," she says. And he adds, "Kisses without num- r. " "Waking ⅲ the mormng— "Silver between the trees.' "Upstairs—" " ⅲ the garden—" "When summer came—" " winter snowtime " The doors go shutting far in the distance, gently knocking like the pulse ofa heart. Nearer they come; cease at the doorway. The wind falls, the rain slides silver down the glass. Our eyes darken; we hear no steps beside us; we see no lady spread her ghostly clo 衣 . His
Refusing to be discouraged, Lincoln challenged Douglas for his seat in the Senate. The lllinois Republicans nominated him unammously. His acceptance speech 、 based on a quotatlon 伝 om the BibIe. The phrase became one Of his favorites: "A house divided against itself cannot stand. ” The United States, he said, could not contlnue as half-free and half-slave. JAMIES BUCHANAN Either slavery would end, or it 、 Mould take over the 、 country. Or the country would be destroyed. 40
THE CANADIAN ROCKIES: A HISTORY 爪 PHOTOGRAPHS 43 THE HIGH FRONTIER Opposite. Climbers on the summit Of Mt. Resplendent, duringthe 1913 Alpine Club 0f Canada, Mount Robson camp. lt was lnevitable mountaineering would became popular in the Rockies. The Canadian Pacific Railway was constructed thro ugh some of the most spectacular and challenging mountarn scenery in the 、 vorld. Hundreds Of 、 vere ln Vie 、伝 01 Ⅱ the rails; all unclimbed, most 、 aISO unnamed. Thousands more peaks lay hidden beyond. The Rockies and Selkirks were virtual blank maps, inviting mountameers summlt 、 Mard, tO etch their names on the sno 、リ pages of history. Glacier House, Mt. Stephen House and Chalet Lake Louise were comfortable lodgings on the doorsteps tO adventure and fame. B ut even more crucial tO the develop- ment Of mountalneerrng in Canada than the new accessibil- ity of the Rockies and Selkirks, was the timing of the completion of the CPR. By the 1870 ' s almost allthe mapr mountarns in Europe had been ascended. Mounta1neers eager for new terrain which offered the opportunity for coveted "first ascents". Thus the eyes Of the 、 moun- tameering elite turned to Canada. As it had done before with the hotsprings and its hotels, the CPR capitalized on this lnterest tO create successful industry in the ROCkies. first significant mountameering ascents from the rall 、 were made by government surveyors the 1880 S. These included Mt. Stephen at Field, and Mt. Rundle at BanfE A few other explorers climbed the odd ridge, and occasionally reached lesser summits during this but the birth Of recreational mountarneering in the ROCkies dates tO the summer Of 189 引 in the mountalns near l-•ouise. Samuel Allen, a student from YaIe, had visited the Rockies briefly in 1891 and stayed atthe original Chalet Lake Louise. Two years later he returned with Ⅱ ow student' Walter Wilcox, to make attempts on Mts. Victoria and Temple. Although unsuccessful, the 、 the nOVICe mountameers appetites for alpine for Wilcox, began an interest in the Rockies which would continue until hiS death in 1940. ln 1894 , the Yale Lake Louise Club' now five strong' returned and made first ascents 0f Mts. TemPle and Aber- deen , along With extenswe exp loratiO ns Of surrounding valleys. Not content merely with conquering the heightS' members Of this group spent considerable time and energy mapping' photographing and documenting whatthey saw ー
196 W I L L I A M S A R OYA N I jumped down t0 the yard 仕 om the window and leaped up onto the horse behind my cousin Mourad. That year we lived at the edge of town, on WaInut Avenue. Behind our house was the country: vineyards, orchards, irriga- tion ditches, and country roads. ln less than three minutes we were on 01 ⅳ e Avenue, and then the horse began t0 0t. The was new and lovely to breathe. The feel of the horse run- mng was wonderful. My cousin Mourad wh0 was considered one Of the craziest members 0f 0 町 family began to sing. I mean, he began tO ro . Every family has a crazy streak ⅲ it somewhere, and my cousin Mourad was considered the natural descendant Of the crazy streak ⅲ our tribe. Before him was our uncle Khosrove, 明 enormous man with a powerful head of black hair and the largest mustache ⅲ the San Joaquin Valley, a man SO furious ⅲ temper, SO irritable, SO impatient that he stopped anyone 仕 om talking by roaring, 力なれ 0 ん ar , ・ 0 アれ 0 加わ〃″ . That was all, no matter what anybodY h 叩 pened to be talk- ing about. Once it was his own son Arak running eight blocks to the barber shop where his father was having his mustache trimmed tO tell him their house was on fire. The manKhosrove sat up ⅲ the chair and ro ed, lt is no harm ・ pay no attention t0 it. The barber said, But the boy says yo house is on fire. So Khosrove ro ed, Enough, it is no harm, I s . My cousin Mourad was considered the natural descendant of this man, although Mourad's father was Zorab, who was practical and nothmg else. That's how it was ⅲ 0 町 tribe. A man could be the father ofhis son's flesh, but that did not mean that he was also the father ofhis spirit. The distribution ofthe vari- ous kinds of spint of our tribe had been 丘 om the beginning capncious and vagrant. We rode and my cousin Mourad sang. For all anybody knew we were still ⅲ the 01d country where, at least according tO 0 町 neighbors, we belonged. We let the horse run as long as it lt like running. At last my cousin Mourad said, Get down. I want t0 ride alone. WiII you let me ride alone? I said.