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ロビンソン・クルーソー

THE ADVENTURES OF ROBINS()N CRUS()E 福音館古典童話シリーズ ヾ .

トム・ソーヤーの冒険〈上〉 (岩波少年文庫)

THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER by Mark Twain lllustrated by T. W. Williams Cover illustration ⑥ 1936 , 1964 bY Norman Rockwell

ロビンソン・クルーソー

THE LIFE AND STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE OF YORK, MARINER by Daniel Defoe First published ⅲ England 1719 PubIished in Japan 1975 by Fukuinkan-Shoten

The snow leopard

O C T O B E R 12 The Dirty Kamis, in the great tradition of porters all around the world, will go no farther; no doubt they are daunted—l am, too—by the sight of the precipitous trail up the mountain face across the river.With a last, despalring 100k at the unlooted loads, they set off for Dhorpatan, taking the two Tibetan boys along. Though glad to be rid of them, we now discover that there are no porters to be had at Yamarkhar, and Jang-bu is bargaining with the hut's owner for the hire of five ponies. What the ponies will do in the snows of the Jang Pass is a prob- lem we shall have to deal with when we get there. Because of high mountains to the east, this village will be dark until midmorning, but the upper slope of the mountain oppo- site is already in the sun when GS and I make the long slippery descent through the farm terraces intO bamboo at the pema torrent, which roars through the cold g100m of the ravine. A remarkable wood bridge has boarded sides that are carved in flowers, while the four posts at the bridge ends are sculpted crudely as paired d わ 4 ツ as , or guardians," representing 10Ca1 deities of the 01d religions; such male and female portal figures are also made by coastal lndians of the Pacific Northwest. The females are holding their vulvae wide, as if in welcome tO the realms Of the mountain gods; sternly we cross the bridge and climb ane 、 v,. The path meets the sun at a small hamlet, source of the fire seen last night in the moon shadow, and one Of the very prrmi- tlve communlties still tO be found in these deep inner canyons of the HimaIaya. As the falcon flies, this place is not a mile from Yamarkhar, yet they might be in different lands, in different

Environmental Economics and Policy

66 劭叩 / 催イ怦叩んな , E. e ″″ , ロれイ E れ ro れ襯 2 記 Problems level. This restraint results in lower costs in the form of less time and effort expended to pro- duce a given yield Of bison. On the Other hand, a hunter exploiting an open-access resource would not have any incentive tO conserve because the benefits derived from restraint would, tO some extent, be captured by Other hunters. Thus, unrestricted access tO resources pro- motes an inefficient allocation. AS a result Of this kind Of excessive harvest and the loss Of habitat as it was converted to farm and pasture land, the Great Plains bison herds nearly became extinct (Lueck 2002 ). Public G00d5 PubIic G00 内 defined as those that exhibit both consumption indivisibilities and nonexclud- ability, present a particularly complex category of environmental resources. Ⅳ 0 れ c んわ市 refers tO a circumstance where, once the resource is provided, even those who fail to pay for it cannot be excluded from enjoying the benefits it confers. Consumption is said to be 加市リな when one person's consumption Of a good does not diminish the amount available for others. Several common environmental resources are public goods, including not only the "charming landscape" referred tO by Emerson, but also clean air, clean water, and biological diversity. 3 召わんグ c 記市″彑 includes two related concepts: ( 1 ) the amount of genetic variability among individuals within a single species, and ( 2 ) the number Of species within a community Of organisms. Genetic イか豆 , critical tO species survival in the natural world, has also proved tO be important in the development of new crops and livestock. lt enhances the 叩 por- tunities for crossbreeding and, thus, the development of superior strains. The availability of different strains was the key, for example, in developing a new, disease-resistant barley. Because Of the interdependence Of species within ecological communities, any particular species may have a value tO the community far beyond itS intrinsic value. species con- tribute balance and stability to their ecological communities by providing food sources or holding the population of the species in check. The richness of diversity within and among species has provided new sources of food, energy, industrial chemicals, raw materials, and medicines. Yet there iS considerable evidence that biological diversity is decreasing. Can we rely on the private sector tO produce the efficient amount of public goods such as biological diversity? UnfortunateIy, the answer is no! Suppose that in response to diminishing ecological diversity we decide tO take up a collection tO provide some means of preserving endangered species. Would the collection yield sufficient revenue to pay for an efficient level Of ecological diversity? The general answer is no. Let's see why. ln Figure 4.6 , individual-demand curves for preserving biodiversity have been presented for 朝 0 consumers and 召 . The market-demand curve is represented by the vertical summa- tion Of the tWO individual-demand curves. A vertical summation is necessary because every- one can simultaneously consume the same amount Of bi()logical diversity. We are therefore able tO determine the market demand by finding the sum of the amounts of money they would be willing t0 pay for that level of diversity. What is the efficient level of diversity? lt can be determined by a direct application of our definition of efficiency. The efficient allocation maximizes net benefits. Net benefits, in turn, are represented geometrically by the portion of the area under the market-demand curve that 3Notice that public "bads," such as dirty air and dirty water, are also possible.

The Mayflower Miracle: The Pilgrims' Own Story of the Founding of America

then another mat and under that, a board finely carved and painted, with three broaches on the top like a crown. The investigators dug deeper and, between the mats, they found bowls, trays, dishes, and such like trinkets. At length, they came to a beautiful new mat and, under that, two bundles ー a large and a small one. They opened the largest bundle to find a great quantity of fine and red powder and the bones and skull 0f a man. The skull still had fine yellow hair on it and a little flesh. ln with the skull there were also a knife, a pack-needle, and two or three 01d iron implements. The whole package was bound up ⅲ a sailor's canvas cassock, and a pair Of cloth breeches. WinsIow said the red powder was a kind of embalming liquid and yielded a strong, but not offensive, smell. Then, lifting the smaller corpse out of the grave, the Pilgrims re- moved some 0f the trinkets. They opened the smaller bundle findlng the same powder in it, and the bones and head of a little child. The legs and 0ther p arts were b ound with strings and brac elets Of fine white beads. There was also alongside the baby corpse a little bow, about three-quarters long and some 0ther 0dd items. WinsIow said the PiI- grims t00k some 0f the prettiest things away with them and covered up the corpse again. WinsIow related how no one knew the identity of the yellow-haired corpse but there was variety Of opinions among them about this embalmed person. Some thought it was an lndian lord and King, while others argued that, the lndians all have black hair and none had ever been seen with brown or yellow hair, the corpse could have been a Christian 0f special note, wh0 had died among the lndians and who had been buried in honor. Others thought the lndians had killed him and buried him ⅲ this style tO triumph over him. Then, at last loaded up with their spoils from the grave, the Pilgrims heard about some nearby lndian shelters which turned out tO be much more substantial structures than they had imagined and full 0f many more attractive goods. While they were searching the graves, two Of the sailors whO had come on shore by chance, found two houses full Of goods but empty for the moment. The sailors, having their guns and hearing nobody, entered the houses and t00k away some things before coming and telling Winslow's expedition party Seven or eight 0f the expedition p went with the sailors tO inspect the homes. WinsIow described how the lndian houses were made with young sapling trees, bent over with b0th ends stuck in the ground. They were shaped round like an arbor, he said, and covered down t0 the ground with thick and well wrought mats while the door was not over a yard high, made Of a mat which opened and shut. The chlmney was a wide open hOle in the top with a mat which they could use tO cover it whenever they pleased. The huts were tall enough for the PiIgrims t0 stand and go upright in them. ln the midst Of them were four small trenches cut intO the ground; small sticks were laid over the trenches The early 〃 lo rs e 尾 fascinated the ー市 0 れ s 0 れ d 0 ん great 〃 0 え s record ん e か clO れ g , ea 〃 0 s 0 〃 d domestic レ S 〃 S. ま 第をーー第 76

The Mayflower Miracle: The Pilgrims' Own Story of the Founding of America

lntroduction: The Vine oflsrael ・ s 0 こ可 s わ eg れれ gs 0 砒 e 市れ gs ん佖 e been produced わ 4 んなん佖 d 砒襯佖 e au れ gs 可 0 0 , 佖 gives われ 0 0 〃市を gs 市佖佖 , ・ 0 れ d one s 襯佖〃 c 佖襯 e 佖 4 1 ん佖 0 s 佖 d , so the I 厩ん e kindled ん硯ん shone to 2 れれ既 ye 佖れ SO 色 e SO e 0 0 ) ん ol,e 佖 0 れ , ・ let the 0 0 s 佖襯 e 可 e ん 0 佖 ん佖 0 〃 the 盟佖な e. ' William Bradford The Pilgrim story is an astonishing saga of hero ic men and women battling agamst the elements tO realize an impossible dream. If a modern writer presented the story a novel he may have difficulty finding a publisher, the epic drama seems inconceivable. But the adventures of this brave little band struggling towards their noble goal were all true. As a tale it is dramatic Homer's mythical UIysses fighting his way back home from Troy t0 lthaca; and a story it is more lmportant, because the story 0f the miracle Of the PiIgrims' settlement is alSO the story Of the miracle Of America. When the Pilgrims founded their settlement at Plymouth ⅲ 1620 , they planted se eds from which modern America grew. The character 0f that original settlement, more than anything else, has mfluenced the fundamental character 0f Americans and their way Of life. ConsequentIy the story Of the PiIgrims is 0f great significance tO every modern . American. The period in which the PiIgrims lived was oppressive. PeopIe were burnt at the stake for saying things that upset the church or state authorities. There was no freedom 0f religion. People died for believing ⅲ the wrong GOd. ln fact the Spanish lnquisition was developed t0 hunt down and torture people wh0 were suspected Of not having the right religious beliefs. The Roman Cath01ic church dominated the world and the armies 0f Europe enforced its rules and regulations. The Thirty Years War tore Europe apart during the period CathoIics and Protestants fought over the fundamental questions Of religion. For decades it was an uncertain and violent world the Spanish

The snow leopard

T H を S N 0 、 V L E 0 PA R D Far overhead, the great lammergeier turns and turns. 75 The porters are cooking their midmormng meal; they will eat the second of two daily meals at the end of the day's trek, in late afternoon. There is still no SIgn Of Jang-bu, and no voice from the mountain; perhaps he is still in Dhorpatan, hunting for porters, or perhaps he has had trouble with them on the way. Phu-Tsering sends Dawa back in search, and the tireless Tukten volunteers to keep Dawa company; they go back up the steep mountain. ln less than an hour, the Sherpas return, hav- ing seen the others on the upper trails. When Jang-bu and Gyaltsen come, at noon, the new porters set about their morn- ing meal, and so we are delayed an hour longer. We wait by the stone hut. GS, beside himself, expends his en- ergy by hiking Off upnver; returning, he scans the mountains with his spotting scope. Blue sheep could occur here on the bare upper slopes, but they have been hunted heavily in this re- gion by Pahari Hindus working out 0f Dhorpatan, and none are seen. On a high wooded ridge, however, he locates two Hi- malayan tahr, an archaic animal that is a transitional form between goat-antelopes and goats. Under the sky, the dark creatures are still, yet they give life tO the whOle mountain, and the Tamangs, looking through a telescope for the first time in their lives, dance and whistle in excltement. The new porters are dirt-colored men in dirty rags and small black caps, carrying the curved Gorkha hatchet-knife called the たた . They are not interested in the telescope. MOSt are "Kami" people 0f the blacksmith caste, soot-faced familiars 0f the smelting fire and the iron stolen from the rock, feared and despised as black magicians by primitive people throughout Eurasia and Africa since the beginning 0f this Dark Age 0f lron. With them are two young Tibetans, who carry the heaviest loads, not only because they are smallest and weakest but be- cause, eing Buddhist, they are treated as inferior even by 10W - caste Hindus such as these. The "Dirty Kamis" are a sharp-eyed 10t , so we are watchful, t00. And we have hardly set out down the valley when the first

50 Great Short Stories

M A I N C U R R E N T S 0 F A M E R I C A N T H 0 U G H T HOW many years more? The vacuum cleaner roared. 479 Martha was Jewish. That meant you'd have to lie your way intO some hotels, ifyou went at all, and you never could escape om one particular meanness of the world around you; and when the bad time came there you'd be, adrift on that danger- ous sea. He sat down at his desk. One hundred dollars again to Spain. Barcelona had fallen and the long dusty lines were beat- ing their way t0 the French border with the planes over them, and out 0f a sense 0f guilt at not being on a dusty road, your- self, bloody-footed and ⅲ危 of death, you gave a hundred dollars, feeling at the same time that it was too much and noth- mg you ever gave could be enough. Three-and-a-third The Adventures ofDusty Blades to the dead and dying of Spain. The world 10a you day by day with new burdens that in- crease on your shoulders. Lift a pound and you find you're carrymg a ton. "Marry me," she says, "marry me. " Then what does Dusty do? What the hell can he do that he hasn't done be- fore? For five afternoons a week now, for a year, Dusty has been ⅲ Flacker's hands, or the hands of somebody else who is Flacker but has another name, and each time he has escaped. HOW now? The vacuum roared ⅲ the hallway outside his room. "Mom!" he yelled. "PIease turn that thing om ” "What did you say?" his mother called. "N0thing. ' He added up the bank balances. His figures showed that he was 応町 hundred and twelve dollars overdrawn instead ofone hundred and eleven dollars, as the bank said. He didn't feel like adding the figures over. He put the vouchers and the bank's sheet intO an envelope for his income-tax returns. "Hit it out, CharIie!" a boy called on the field. "Make it a fast one! ” Andrew felt like going out and playing with them. He changed his clothes and put on a pair 0f01d spikes that were ly- ing ⅲ back ofthe closet. His 01d pants were tight on him. Fat.

50 Great Short Stories

T H E C U R F E W T O L L S 305 plan 0f campaign, for corks on a m 叩 . Of course these things are different, ⅲ the field. I could say, with honesty, that his plan had features of nov- elty, and he gulped the words down hungrily—he has a great appetite for flattery. "Yes, yes," he said. "That is how it should be done—the thickest skull can see it. And, ill as I am, with a fleet and ten thousand picked men—" He dreamed, obviously, the sweat ofhis exertions on his waxy face—it was absurd and yet touch- mg tO see him dream. "You would find a certain amount of opposition," I sald, ⅲ an amused VOice. "Oh, yes, yes," he said quickly, 'I do not underrate the English. Excellent horse, solid foot. But no true knowledge of cannon, and I am a gunner I hated t0 bring him down to earth and yet I felt that I must. "Of course, major," I said, "you have had great experlence ⅲ the field. ' He lOOked at me for a moment, his arrogance quite un- shaken. 当 have had very little," he said, quietly, "but one knowshow the thmg should be done or one does not ow. And that is enough. He stared at me for an instant with his big eyes. A little mad, ofcourse. And yet I found myselfsaying, "But surely, maJ0r— what happened? ” "Why," he said, still quietly, "what happens to 応 lk who have naught but their brains t0 sell? I staked my all on lndia when I was young—l thought that my t shone over it. I ate dirty puddings—corpo 市召 acc ん 0. ′ーー t0 get there—l was no De Rohan or Soubise to win the king's favor! And I reached there indeed, ⅲ my youth, Just ⅲ time to be included ⅲ the surrender of Pondicherry. ” He laughed, rather terribly, and sipped at his glass. You English were very courteous captors," he said. "But I was not released till the Seven Years War had ended—that was ⅲ ' 63. Who asks for the special exchange of unknown ar- tillery lieutenant? And then ten years odd of garrison duty at