Angkor : cities and temples


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g09 0 ー南 、ツ 0 9 ゞ : : - ー East Mebon Prasat Kok Po -0g020 目ロ OQ East Baray 言嚼ゑ↑↑ .. ↑、 よ : っ 20 二↑ . ↑ゑ↑ゑ↑工 3 Pras at Kravan ・一、 Bat Ch Srah Srang Pre R ー、、第↑ 0 000gg 目 00000 0 0 0 を 2 ) Yum Phnom Bakheng 5 月〃 g た砿〃肥可 R 可ビ〃 drav の〃 . 〇カ 20 朝 602 ビ . ・ S ー″化可、 S ″ r ら観第・ 0 襯 S ビ CO 〃イ e 〃な〃 C ビ 7 ' んビ尾〃 za わパ可 7 の観 7 観 r 〃〃れ・立砒〃ゆた砒 KO ん l<er. (Photo: ・ C / 田ィプ引化 022 流 r を厖 Prasat Kra んの〃 . , た〃 0 〃ビ 'red 訪〃 、つ〃 2 こんビ br たた S used / 〃 / なじ 0 〃 S な″ C 々 0 〃 . ( ん oto. ・ C ん″プ“ 9 怩 it than there was at Angkor. lt is quite likely t00 that Jayavarman was keen tO ShOW himself able tO match or even outd0 the achievements 0f Angkor. There were, however, S01 e major shrines built in brick, notably Prasat Kraham, red shrine', which may have been reconstructed after the king had assumed the supreme throne. lt was the eastern entrance pavilion and housed an immense statue Of dancing Shiva with five heads and eight arms. lt was sadly discovered in fragments, but enough remalns tO demonstrate the fine quality Of itS sculpture. Jayavarman probably died in 941 , which appears t0 be the year in which his son Harshavarman ll mounted the supreme throne, or S01 れ e short time before that date. The latter was not his father's designated heir, as an lnscription relates that he "attained kingship with the help 0f a friend and that 0f his two arms ” . The friend was probably his cousin wh0 was t0 become Rajendravarman, klng 0f Bhavapura and whose mother, Mahendradevi was the sister Of Harshavarman's mother, Jayadevi. An ancient lineage thus returned tO the forefront' and there is no reason tO doubt that it was legitimate. The successlon was, however' contested. One Of Harshavarman II'S generals had t0 wage war on the town 0f lndrapura' Jayavarman ll's first capital' and during his short reign the king himself was embroiled in continual struggles. OnlY three years 1ntO his reign Harshavarman ll mysteriously disappeared and there is every reason tO suspect that he met a ViOlent end.No architectural achievement is attributed tO though it is true he had little time. Moving the CapitaI 93

RAJENDRAVARMAN: THE RETURN TO ANGKOR lt appears that until this time Bhavapura, the kernel 0f the ancient kingdom founded in the 6th century by Bhavarvarman I in the centre 0f Camb0dia around Sambor Prei Kuk, had managed to keep largely independent of the 'supreme kings'. After the death 0f Jayavarman IV, King Rajendravarman Of Bhavapura, whO was possessed 0f considerable energy and had succeeded his father King Mahendravarman several years before, decided tO help his cousin Harshavarman ll mount and retain the supreme throne. He was not personally entitled tO the succession but the struggle for his matrilineal ancestry lncited him tO seize the supreme throne on the death Of hiS COLlS1n in 944. The court poets emphasise that Rajendravarman was greater ・ ' than his predecessor lll age and in the accumulation Of hiS virtues ” . ln the inscrlptions such a derogatory companson IS extremely rare, tO the point that it has been taken as (a)endravarman's self-justification for taklng over power after his cousln. Although they were unrelated, Rajendravarman was a great admirer 0f Yashovarman I and he returned to the site of Angkor to re-establish the capital of the Khmer empire. lt is probable that he initially established himself in the former royal palace. His first (a)Or work 0f piety was t0 restore the nearby temple 0f Baksei Chamkrong which had in a11 likelihood fallen into temporary disuse during the Koh Ker interlude. Rajendravarman "added a splendid stucco decorauon ” (which has now vanished) to the tower which had been built by Harshavarman I. The shrine's new god was dedicated on Wednesday 23 February 948 , t0 be precise, at 9.40 am. lt was a gold' statue Of Paramesvara and not a / / 〃 ga as might be expected when this name for Shiva is invoked. The founder seems tO have chosen lt tO echO the posthumous name (Paramesvara) 0f K1ng Jayavarman Ⅱ . From then on the temple was also the seat 0f the 'spirits' Of all previous Khmer klngs wh0 are invoked in a splendid inscription which covers the WhOle Of the tower's gate-)ambs. Thanks tO this inscription we have a clue as tO hOW the Khmers would rewrite their own history at that time. They begin, as dO many Other traditions, by extolling various quite legendary kings and this is when the name of the r なん Kambu, ancestor of the Kambuja ('born of Kambu') first occurs. This name arises fror a separate legend 仕 01 れ that Of Kaundinya, and nothing more iS known Of it. E たカん〃ーこ SO ー ea 立 cor 〃 er Of the terrace ofEast l"l イ 60 〃 . 94

K. INGDOMS REDUCED TO PROVINCES Rajendravarman did indeed need the protection of all the former klngs. He was considered an intruder and was evidently unwelcome 仕 01 れ the outset. Throughout hiS reign he had tO face numerous rebellions frOI れく hmer chieftains. His first task was tO bring back under his sway the kingdoms which had become detached from the empire during previous reigns. lt may have been due tO the hardships he encountered in attempting this reordering that he apparently t00k the drastic step 0f simply relegating the kingdoms t0 the status 0f な力の観 or provinces'. lt is a safe bet that this radical reform was deeply resented by his former equals, the ousted kings. (a)endravarman alSO waged war beyond the empme's frontiers. At one point ー the date is not known ー he sent a force on an expedition in which "the town Of the king Of Champa, which has the ocean as its deep moat, was reduced tO ashes by warriors WhO obeyed hiS orders. " The informatlon IS very imprecise as Cham towns were all near the sea, but it is evident nevertheless that the king was powerful enough tO venture a long way from his home base. The reason for the expedition is obscure but the lmpression is that for long periods the Chams and the Khmers would raid each 0ther and then seek revenge, without its being clear which side was the instigator. On the Thai flank, Rajendravarman le 仕 various clues which tend t0 indicate that he had little difficulty in regaining all the lands which had been under the rule 0f Yashovarman I. . A. NEW CAPITAL SOUTH OF THE EAST BARAY Rajendravarman hastened t0 build a new capital in the centre 0f the south bank Of the Baray. lt could well be that he chose the site on the grounds Of ease 0f commumcation across the immense reservolr, acting as a turntable. Of hiS as might be expected, are mostly grouped in this zone. As well as Pre Rup there was the East Mebon rising in the middle of the 6 and the Buddhist temple Bat Chum, built by the kingly architect who also dug out the small 6 の 0f Srah Srang. The temple Of Kutisvara, now ln can alSO be assigned tO hiS as can another temple which has vanished and was replaced in the 12th century bY Banteay Kdei. Of the capital founded by Rajendravarman, little more than the state temple Pre Rup, r1Sing due south Of the East Meb011' can now be seen. know however that a laterite causeway formerly lined with boundary stones ran frOI the temple towards the east. lts surveyed length is more than 1 ()() metres and unfortunately the modern road cuts through it. The city limits can no longer be discerned and its builders may well not have had time tO surround it with moats. But its area can be reckoned on the 7 0 い可川がビ可 B 砒 C んⅢ〃 . Moving the Capital 95