Borobudur : : golden tales of the buddhas /

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the and The Borobudur are for with was his that which were but have Buddha Java from Javanese the c one reliefs not him monument who central four prince them found they Buddhist the first Sudhana people more stupa their has this and a Buddhism been ing where king first panels the king This statues had with t level other these left may three relief text They upper another These buddhas terraces Other about known still made many gods used her right between probably some Chinese Diamond Sakyamuni around stupas such temples five each number gallery called then stones Opposite its like Sumatra mandala

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6 0 団 00M6 6 030M0 圈 3 9- 一豊 ◎ー◎ 0- 9 暠 0 ロ 0 旦 0 ロ 0 。 0 圄。台す 40 0 。新粤かす回目一回。ロを。 ◎⑨◎◎ ◎〇 ⑩◎◎ ◎④◎ 0 00 盖。回。 0 靨〔 0 日 0 0 。 。 0 。 。 0 0 自回目 0 ロ”回 0 月 0 0 名 . 臾 View イ召。川イ 0 1 2 3 4 5m DESCRIPTION 0 方 77 / 石 MONU 石 N7 ・ 41

and most are beautiful or handsome; those which ar ・ ugly or fearsome are aISO humorous or humble. The impact of the first gallery is particularly grea becaus lt contains four serles Of reliefs—two large one above the Other on the maln wall, and tWO smalle ones on the balustrade. Every scene is divided from th next by decoratlve pilasters and ornate scrollwork, eac one umque, with bases formed by a wide assortment 0 objects, people, and animals. Above the upper edge of the outer balustrade, the rea walls of the niches in which the buddha statues S1t are ible. Those on the first balustrade are decorated with, crowning motif representing a jewel, while the niches 0 】 the upper galleries are decorated with small stupas. The reliefs are arranged so that as one ascends th ・ monument, the stories become more complicated abstract. The upward physical progress of the pilgrim 1 thus itself a symbolic progress from the "world of illu S10n" to one of knowledge and enlightenment. FabIes and FairytaIes The two series of smaller relief on the balustrade (outer wall) of the first gallery depic popular Buddhist stories from collections known a ノ 4t4 た 4 ゞ and 4 ワ 4 イ 4 〃 45 concermng the prevlous lncarna tions of people who later became buddhas. The lowe galleries are not straight, but trace four right-angle bends serles on the maln or lnner wall alSO contams ノ 4 ー 4 た 4 on each side. As pilgrims f0110W the reliefs, walking 404d4 〃 4 tales. A11 Of these are entertallllng storles, muc like Aesop's fables or fairytales. The reliefs on th clockwise around with the monument always on their right, the journey is thereby enlivened by frequent balustrade altogether comprise 500 panels of SIZes. Those on the top row are smaller (either 62 cen changes Of directlon WhiCh prevent one from obtaining a tlmeters square or 100 x 62 centlmeters) than those on th V1ew Of the corridor extending for any great distance. MOSt reliefs must be seen up close, from no further than bottom ( 260 x 65 centimeters). The Life of Sakyamuni The upper series of reliefs 0 】 the width of the gallery, although the reliefs at the corners the maln wall of the first gallery is more abstract. lt illus can be seen れ farther a は y,. trates the life story of Gautama Buddha according to a tex As one approaches the corner, a panel topped by trian- called the カ 4 / 4 ワ立 4 4. This story introduces the viewe gular ornaments called antefixes may be seen. Water to more elaborate expressions of Buddhist ideas. Th ・ spouts placed here are shaped like 襯 4 た on the lowest panels, which begin on the south (left) side of the easterl level, but at the upper levels, KaIa-Iike faces are used. Above these is a statue of a buddha in a niche, flanked by stan-way, total 120 (each measuring 276 x 80 centlmeters). The Quest for W1sdom At the end of the first gallery pilasters crowned by human figures called ga 〃お who pilgrims arrive back at the eastern stalrs and then hold up 襯 4 た with their hands. A Kala head appears to the second gallery. Here are found two series of reliefs in the center of the arch above the buddha statue. On the outer wall are depicted more ノ 4 4 た 4 ゞ and 4 ワ 4 ・ Entering the first gallery, we plunge headlong into a イ 4 〃 in 100 panels 0f two sizes ( 190 x 55 centimeters an( world of myth. Hundreds of images appear wearing cos- 85 x 55 centimeters). The inner wall of this gallery con tumes, posturing amid buildings and trees, doing things tams panels that begin tO reveal what may be referred t( which seem important but are difficult tO interpret. The as Borobudur's main theme"—the example of the pil scenes frequently portray situatlons rather than actlons. grim Sudhana wh0 visited 110 teachers in his endeavor t( Without further explanation it IS usually impossible to become a bodhisattva, and who was finally admitted decipher what is going on. The effect of these crowded the palace 0f Maitreya on the summit of Mt. sumeru. Th scenes IS not frightening, however. The faces are serene 42 ARCHITECTURE AND SYMBOLISM 7 方 4 立 ga 能リ可、召の℃み〃 d 盟 : Once the が / ー g 襯 e 〃亡 e CO ツイ 0 ハ CO 〃〃 2 g ーに 角厖な c 。襯が e り cut 9 〃、。襯 the ト c 孕ルれ ew 可、訪い 4 % .

カ 0C4 々 0 〃 0 the 召 0 み d 方 OU 犬 T 〃 G ス / 工た火 ) : ん 4 US7 ' ん 4D 石Ⅳ 4 乙 GANDAVYUHA IV B ア〃 / 犬 D G ス石 R ) : BALUSTRADE Ⅳス / ユ GANDAVYUHA Ⅱ I B SECOND G スんん石 R ) : ん 4 ん US ア R 月 D 石Ⅳスん JATAKAS, AVADANAS Ⅱ B 犬 STG スん石 R ) : BALUSTRADE W. スんん (UPPER) JATAKAMALA, OTHER JATAKAS I B b 方駅 S7 ' G スカん石火 ) : B 月んい T ん 4D 石 W : 4 ん仏 0 Ⅳ石火 ) JATAKAS I B a Ⅳ S アん石 V た 0U7 五犬ん 4 US アん 4D 石 GUARDIAN FIGURES 0.0 〃 / DD た N 方 007 ' MAHAKARMAVIBHANGGA 0.1-0.160 story, taken from the Ga 〃 d40 ) あ 4 text, occupies 128 panels on the maln wall (each measuring 192 x 114 cen- timeters except for those beside the gates, which are 150 x 114 centlmeters). lt is continued on the maln wall Of the third level ( 88 panels measuring 130 x 104 centimeters) and on the balustrade ( 88 panels measuring 130 x 104 centimeters), then on the balustrade of the fourth level ( 84 panels in two S1zes: 204 x 60 centimeters behind the niches, 104 x 60 centimeters elsewhere) before reaching its conclusion on the mam wall 0f the fourth level ( 72 panels, 250 x 100 centlmeters). ln terms 0f extent and 方 0 し火 77 / G , 4 / ノ上火 MA/N Ⅳ 4 んん GANDAVYUHA IV ( B 房市“ 4 77 / / D G , 4 / ノ上犬 MA/N Ⅳ 4 /. GANDAVYUHA III SECOND G 月んん石火 ) : MA/N W 員 /. ん GANDAVYUHA Ⅱ お / R 、 7 ' G , 4 /. / 上火 ) : , 4 / N W : 4 / 仏〇Ⅳた犬 ) MANOHARA, OTHER AVADANAS I b お / 犬、 7 ' G ス / ノ上犬 ) : MA/N W 員 /. / イし / ) P R ) LALITAVISTARA I a content as well as pride 0f place, therefore, this is clearly the 1 れ OSt lmportant sequence Of reliefs on the monument. Entering the Sea of lmmortality ln Borobudur's original design only the third and fourth galleries had elaborate gateways topped by arches at the entrance, but these were later added tO the first and second levels as well. Most of the gateways have disappeared, but some remaln—at the eastern entrance tO the fourth gallery and the north entrance tO the round terraces. The gateways are ornate. A fearsome monster head called a Kala forms the top of an arch through which the viS1tor must walk. DESCRIPTION 0 方 77 / お MONUMENT 43 火 e / 〃〃 e み 0 枋 the 襯 4 〃 34 ″ we 〃ぉ the 。げ。 ? ・房ん立な , 4 〃可、 ea 訪可、 訪 e ル肝 ga お . 乃 4 み立 ga リ厖 5 % 4 〃 422e 4 れ d 4 あ , e ? ・・ ies 0 / 24 〃 e な 0 〃 either side, ゞ 0 ーあ 4 ーー〃 4 ″ー夜℃ 41 で〃 d な〃は 5 夜・肥 5 〃 4 0 なルん 4 あ〃 g the ″可ツ厖房み町 訪な。ん d 〃ル " 第 c 。。げ翻〃 g the 〃 70 〃 4 〃〃ーゞ CO 〃 S わ・ uc 々 0 〃 .