Gods, Guardians, and Lovers: Temple Sculptures from North India A. D. 700-1200

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ミ一 2 1 A p a h Räj a ー ma n P 「 t h v i d h a 「 a A S U R A J A Y A N T A A D a ー R u d 「 a V a t S a Savit 「 S U G R ー V A V i V a S V 目 n S A T Y A Sävit 「 a Fig. 32 0 Ritual diagram ( レ示れ甲 " 川川 . (Based on a drawing by A. Volwahsen. ) 日 g. 33 ~ 研 Sixty-four—square ld used for the constructlon Of temples, indlcating the names of deitles and 4d4 イ e レ酊示 . 97 工 1 V 1 一 > 「 V 9 N 8 工 8 N S コ d PITARAH ANTAR- IKSA MRGA ANILA

WhiIe lndia's archltects expenmented with forms to define the temple as a shelter for both the deity and the worshlper, they began to extend the measure of the sanctum's sacred central spaces ln ways that could be made visible on the temple's outer walls. TO this end, they first apphed a broad central buttress to each wall on which a sculpted image representing one aspect 0f the inner deity could be placed (see Fig. 39 ). By the early seventh century, applying the grid plan of the レ示 tu 川 4 ″ d ロ信 , architects began tO glve one plane Of projectlon on each 、 the width Of the inner sanctum and a second plane (the central buttress, beanng a divine lmage in an archltectural frame that was designed tO suggest a doorway) the 16 measure 0f the intenor sanctum's わ ra んれ 4 (see Fig. 40 ). These stepped planes in effect added tO the square altar/sanctum a 、 cross plan" Of masomc piers on which images could be placed. (See also Danelle Mason's essay. ) Within the sanctum s r 励 4 , the 川反ⅲ acted as the focus for a human s approach to divinity. such a sculpture made it possible for an otherwise mvisible and all—pervading divinity tO seem present for worship at this chosen location. AS a t001 for meditation, such images made the deity actual—not as stone, but as a 17 VISion tnggered by the image in the worshiper's mind. ln like fashion' the temple created an lmage 0 「 the cosmos. ()n ・嶬/ ・ estern sem10t1c terms, it bOth ル and 覊イ the cosmos. ) Vanat10n A number of expenments with architectural forms for sheltenng the dlvinity contnbuted to the final curvihnear ( 〃畩韲の temple tower typical 0 「 northern lndia. small, "flat-roofed,' PIIIared pavilions ( 川叩 d 叩汀 pandals) were used as votive and probably funereal shnnes ln central lndia for a number 0f centunes. (Their superstructure, in fact, suggests an altar platform. ) Some other shnnes still used large wedge-shaped pent-roofs called 〃沁汀 , sometimes for the sanctum but more frequently as the roof for the pillared hall in front (see Fig. 41 ). Rectangular shnnes were sometimes built tO house certaln types Of divinitles (sets 0 「 mother goddesses, Visnu ln a rechning posltion, the nine planets). They occasionally also had ⅲ 5 汀 r00 民 but often instead had a barrel-vaulted 19 Fig. 34 Temple no. 17 , Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh, about A. D. 400 ー 25. 98

ーツ ~ 当 4 をい第なこ superstructure ( 信の that had been denved 伝 om the secular and urban wooden architectural forms of ancient lndia (see Fig. 42 ). The vertically banded ( 信行加 ) tower of northern lndia's typical 〃畩ロ ra temple took the arched-window shape of the end 0 「 such a barrel roof and, using it mstead as a small ornamental motif, spun a web Of these patterns as vertlcal spines 0 酊示 ) above the offsets in the wall below (see Fig. 43 , p. 105 ). 22 These curvilinear bands tied together the outer walls of the temple and an upper "altar" 0 襯市 ) 23 that took the same dimenslons as the inner sanctum (see Fig. 44 , p. 105 ). This single-spired tower ( 戓 , that is, compared to the single "egg" 0 「 creation, Fig. 30 ) gradually took on a more complex shape, with its multiple forms clustered around a central spire ( 戓 , that is, "not one-egged' ). Mul- tiphcity could be produced in several ways. lnitially, temples with internal paths for circumambulation Of the sanctum placed additional 信行″ 4 models above the , 24 corner piers of their ambulatory walls ロ叩 "five-egged ). GraduaIIy, an additional layer of four models was added over the ambulatory ( 加レ mne-egged"). This elaboration increasingly gave the temple the appearance 0f a Fig. 35 ″ Worship ofthe image in the sanctum Of Dadhimatimätä temple, Goth-Mäfiglod, Rajasthan, about A. D. 850. Fig. 36 0 Pillars with foliate ornament, Rapchodji temple, Khed, Rajasthan, about A. D. 850. 99